In this new Commentary, @SaadOmer3 and I discuss the birth & evolution of vaccine science, how vaccinations have changed our world, the current state of vaccines, remaining challenges & future outlook. #VaccinesSaveLives (1/n)…
Live attenuated vaccines worked well by themselves. But, immunization using toxoid alone induced poor immunity. #GastonRamon found that toxoid injected with ‘stuff’ incl. tapioca, lecithin, agar, starch oil, saponin or breadcrumbs improved immunity. (2/n)…
While Alum became the adjuvant used in vaccines for past 100 years, there is a recent expansion in new adjuvants with potent capacity to boost immunity to vaccines. Discovery of pattern recognition receptors and their ligands laid foundation for this👇🏽 @YaleIBIO (3/n)
Another key vaccine science advance is the development of new types of vaccine approaches. Many #COVID19 vaccine candidates are using new approaches including nucleic acid vaccines. Very exciting development in vaccinology. (4/n)
Looking forward into the future, we need to develop vaccines that elicit mucosal immunity. Local immune effectors are much more potent in blocking viral infection than systemic ones. Secretory IgA, tissue-resident memory T & B cells. Great review👇🏽 (5/n)…
Lastly, as the world eagerly awaits for effective #COVID19 vaccines, improving vaccine acceptance is a key priority. Some advances in this effort include presumptive communication and motivational interviewing. More on this from @SaadOmer3 (end)…

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More from @VirusesImmunity

30 Sep
Are you confused about the role of type I interferons (IFN) in #SARS_CoV_2 infection?

Here is my speculation on what makes IFN-I helpful vs. harmful in #COVID19 patients - it comes down to timing and dose. A short thread.

All figures made by @BioRender & @annsea_park (1/n)
In the best case scenario, a rapid and robust induction of IFN-I should result in viral control and mild disease. This may happen in young people, or with low viral exposure settings. For a discussion we wrote, please read this.
In older adults or after high dose viral exposure, impaired IFN response early during infection results in enhanced viral replication, and prolonged levels of IFN-I and IFN-III responses that could result in pathological consequences and severe disease. (3/n)
Read 9 tweets
13 Sep
I am the luckiest person in the world to have such wonderful trainees who organized the most amazing #IwasakiLabReunion/birthday zoom party yesterday. I am still in awe of how incredibly inspiring it was. Here are a few highlights I want to share with you. (1/) ImageImage
The event started with a delicious lunch delivered to my door for me and my family, to be followed later by my favorite dinner 🍣and 🎂 🍾 🎁 in the evening 😋 They really know how to spoil me! The entire day was packed with amazing talks, trivia sessions and Prince songs 💜(2/)
So 🙏🏼 to everyone who organized this incredible reunion and thoughtful presents - @maria_tokuyama @MelissaLV14 Kris Sepanek @jofrank1088 @JeffGehlhausen @Myoungjoo @peowenlu @carolilucas @aliceluculligan @tianyangmao @annsea_park @marioph13 @taka_takehiro @YYexin Pat Wong (3/)
Read 15 tweets
11 Sep
I cannot believe this is happening - we are celebrating our 20th anniversary of the Iwasaki Lab (and my 50th birthday) tomorrow 🎉

With presentations from my former and current trainees from all around the 🌎 I am suuuuper excited 😁 (1/) Image
The speaker list is just amazing 🤩 including @EllenFoxman @JennyLund15 @YosukeKumamoto @ImmunoFever Xinyan Zhao @weizmano @HShin_Lab @ericsongg Norifumi Iijima (2/)
All of this is hard to believe. The fact that my lab survived for 20 years, I was blessed with incredible trainees, such diverse people and science that supported the lab, and the next generation of scientists it fostered. Grateful does not begin to describe how I feel. (3/)
Read 5 tweets
7 Sep
An excellent new study by @BrodinPetter’s team on the differences between MIS-C and Kawasaki disease. This is incredibly timely and informative. Here are a couple of highlights. (1/)…
While there are some common features, MIS-C and Kawasaki disease differ in important areas. Non-overlapping symptoms and organ involvement, as well as the age group affected. Age in months in this study of MIS-C patients, 106 (71.1 - 165.4), and Kawasaki 24.5 (15.8 - 41.8). (2/)
Kawasaki disease patients have much higher levels of cytokines, IL-6, IL-17A and chemokine CXCL10, than either COVID-19 or MIS-C patients. (3/)
Read 6 tweets
28 Aug
A 25 yr old patient in Nevada has a confirmed case of #COVID19 reinfection (48 days apart between 1st and 2nd PCR).

This time, unlike the case in Hong Kong, the immune system did not protect this person from reinfection or disease. (1/n)…
During the 1st infection in April, patient recovered after about a month in isolation, testing negative for viral RNA in 2 subsequent tests. Patient was well until end of May, became ill and tested positive 2nd time. This time needing hospitalization & oxygen support. (2/n)
Viral genome of 1st and 2nd isolates differed significantly, indicating that reinfection occurred. (3/n)
Read 4 tweets
26 Aug
Men are at higher risk of developing more severe #COVID than women. Our paper out today by @taka_takehiro @Muhellingson Pat Wong @BenIsraelow @carolilucas @sneakyvirus1 Julio Silva @tianyangmao et al examines sex differences in immune response 👇🏽 (1/n)…
Here is a link to an accessible article. (2/n)
Here is an earlier thread I wrote about this study.

We find that men decline in T cell responses as they age, and this correlates with worsening of #COVID disease. Women, even in old age, were able to stimulate T cell immunity. (3/n)

Read 7 tweets

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