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Chemical Engineer MY 🇲🇾 @ChemEngMY
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Actually tengah hari ni nak tweet on Deepwater Horizon Incident. Or also known as Macondo Blow-out. I'm just gonna go through based on the movie je. Hopefully kalau korang tengok balik movie ni korang lagi faham k. #ProcessSafety
btw, sape yang nak share juga knowledge and experience dorang, feel free to do so ye. We discuss and share together
Movie start dengan menunjukkan Blowout Preventer (BOP).

BOP ni apa? As the name goes, BOP bertujuan untuk prevent "blowout".
Blowout adalah incident of uncontrolled flow of gas and underground fluid. mencurah-curah keluar. A milder version of blowout is called a "kick".
Nak senang cerita, BOP is some kind like shutdown valves. Time emergency, the safety system in BOP will seal the well, preventing a blowout and release of hydrocarbon to the sea
BOP is designed to be Fail-Safe. Meaning, walau apa pun yang berlaku, ia akan pastikan keadaan menjadi selamat. BOP normally boleh dikawal daripada drilling rig. Even in the event of signal loss from drilling rig, BOP boleh shut the well dengan sendirinya
Actually, this scene of Mike's daughter explaining about drilling is a good example, lagi-lagi untuk mereka yang tak familiar dengan drilling operation.
Roughly speaking, the mud is used to manage/prevent the "kick". If you manage the kick well, you can prevent blowout
By the way, reality check, all those oil and gas resources under the sea bed, bukan datang daripada dinosaur ye. That's a common misconception
Yes! Deepwater Horizon adalah semi-submersible drilling rig. Jack up rig adalah rig yang kaki dia sampai ke dasar laut. Jack up rig biasanya digunakan untuk shallow water.
Kalau semi-submersible macam Deepwater Horizon ni, dia takde kaki sampai ke dasar laut. Dia ada thruster yang memberinya sifat "dynamically-positioned". Dengan kriteria sebegini, dia boleh operate kat deepwater.
Rig Down mode? In other words, dorang nak kemas-kemas, siap-siap nak pindahkan that semi submersible drilling rig tu. Normally after kerja-kerja drilling mereka dah complete
Haaa... All these thrusters la yang put the drilling rig in place. Kalau thruster fails, boleh hanyut dibawa ombak laut. Which can be very dangerous. Why? Nanti saya explain kat bawah2 ni.
Dalam movie ni, banyak betul dorang mention pasal drilling mud ni. Apa sebenarnya drilling mud?
Drilling mud, atau juga dikenalis ebagai drilling fluid amat penting dalam drilling operation. Selain daripada untuk menyejukkan drill bit, yang paling penting sekali, ia menghalang fluid and oil daripada masuk ke dalam well bore bagi mengurangkan risiko kick
Dalam movie to, Damon Bankston adalah kapal yang akan bawak drilling mud after the completion of drilling activity. Dalam scene awal-awal, OIM tu cam pelik la apahal kapal tu ada kat sini. Cement integrity test pun tak complete.
Tetiba kapal mud dah standby kat tepi. Macam yang dia cakap ni, kalau cement fails, makanya lagi tinggi risiko untuk blowout. That's why the integrity of the cement is very important. That's why dia nak jugak ada buat another round of test
Presence of oil dalam drilling mud is not a good sign OK!
Bila dorang experience that kick, the personnel responded dengan closing the annular. Annular ni, is like a valve. So bila dia tutup, it will stop the flow and manage the kick
Annular is a donut-like rubber seal. Bila pakai rubber tu, it promotes a certain degree of flexibility sebab ada kalanya all these fluid contain rock bits from drilling activities. So, even these solid bits terlekat, the rubber can still secure the well
Tapi kenapa this annular fails to prevent blow out? Bila higher pressure exerted from the bottom, the drill pipe tu ada teralih sikit. Dah tak straight macam before this.
So, the annular failed to secure tightly. Fluid still flow through the small opening at high velocity, causing errosion and consequently, failed to prevent the blowout
Presence of gas is very dangerous ye. Especially pada compressor yang ambil ambient air as intake. The mixture between hydrocarbon gas and air, just need a source of ignition to cause an explosion
That's why certain compressor akan ada HC gas analyser kat air intake dia. Depending pada IPF, detection of HC at these analysers might cause unplanned downtime/trip
Kenapa mamat ni marah-marah just because Andrea call a Mayday? Of course. Bukan senang-senang kita nak make a mayday call. Mayday adalah international radio distress call. Used during life-threatening situation.
Tak silap, hanya captain kapal atau Radio Operator sahaja boleh make a Mayday call. Depend juga pada Emergency Response Procedure sesuatu organisation tu
Like I mentioned previously, thrusters are very important for dynamically-positioned facilities. Thrusters ni la yang put the drilling rig in place, locked in a particular position. Kalau dia ada offset, boleh jadi drilling pipe slanted and can cause a bigger incident.
Tak kelakar okay, kau tengah control something manually, tetiba lost power. Memang ibarat kau operate facility tu seperti orang buta
She's gonna cut the pipe. But the captain and Andrea don't have the authority to push the button. What button? EDS?
This button. EDS, short form for Emergency Depressurisation and Shutdown. Ada certain tempat pakai term ESD button. Emergency Shutdown Button
kat BOP, ada satu safety mechanism untuk seal the well. Blind Shear Ram ni macam gate valve. Upon activiation, dia akan seal everything, and this includes, to cut the drilling pipe. Kira tutup habis la.
Kalau pipe ram, dia akan seal the annular space sahaja. Drill pipe takkan dipotong. Kira macam that "gate valve" ada ruang untuk cater that drill pipe
Again, to activate the EDS button, bukan semua orang boleh senang-senang tekan. This button, to seal the well and cut the pipe, is the last barrier of protection against blowout. Normally OIM will have the authority to do so.
Sebab tu Mike sibuk-sibuk nak bawak Mr Jimmy, the OIM to the bridge. Btw, bridge tu tempat orang control kapal ye. Command semua datang daripada bridge
EDS button had been activated. Tapi kenapa the well still not sealed?
Due to high difference of pressure time blowout happen, the drilling pipe tu ada senget sikit from its usual position. That shear ram blade is unable to cut the pipe successfully
Ok. Tu je la nak cerita. Kalau ada apa-apa nak tambah, silakan ye :)
Silap. EDS stands for Emergency Disconnect System
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