#Thread on Shahi dynasty of Kabul & their conflict against Arab invaders

Buddhist Turk Shahi ruled over Kabulistan & Gandhara during 7th-9th century CE.

#Hindutva #History #DharmicAfghanistan
Kabul is a natural part of ancient Indian history. In the Vedas, Kubha and Karumu are mentioned, alongwith the Sapta-Sindhu of Vedic civilisation.

Kubha = River Kabul
Karumu = River Kurram
Kabul was ruled by Turk Shahi dynasty. They were followers of Buddhism. There is legendary story of the origin of this dynasty, and its founder Barha Takin by Al-Biruni.
These were the following kings who succeeded the throne of Kabul:-

Barha Takin (665-680 CE)
Tegin Shah (680 -739 CE)
Fromo Kesaro (739-745 CE)
Bo Furhun/Khinkhil (745-800 CE)
Pati Dumi (800-815 CE)
Lagaturman (815-822 CE)

During their rule, they faced several Arab invasions.
~665 CE: First invasion carried out by Abdullah (Iraq Governor) on behalf of Khalifa Usman. Abdullah's cousin Abdur Rahman invaded Sijistan (modern E. Iran & S. Afghanistan) & Kabul; and subdued it.

Note the iconoclasm in last pic.
673-681: Abbad was an Arab commander, and the son of Abdullah (Iraq governor).

Abbad served as governor of Sijistan. He made a disastrous incursion to the frontier of India via Sijistan, & lost many Muslim lives in this expedition.
Abdu-r-Rahman (Iraq governor’s cousin) proceeded toward the city of Kabul. Strong resistance was showed by the king of Kabul.

King of Kabul was victorious & threw out the invader out of the city, conquering all remaining land from governor of Sijistan.
Governor of Sijistan, Abdul Aziz declared war against the king of Kabul. The King of Kabul was killed in the combat. This war continued under his successor and he was compelled to submit to the payment of tribute.
697-8: Another attempt was made by Abdullah, governor of Sijistan. Hajjaj (Iraq Governor) ordered him to enforce the payment of the tribute.

But the expedition ended in disaster for Arabs. They had to retire because Shahi armies had cut off the supply lines of Caliphate army.
700-1: Governor of Sijistan Abdul Rahman himself commanded the next expedition. He was victorious and collected huge booty from Kabul.

720: Diplomatic embassy to China

739: The legendary King Fromo Kesaro ascended the throne of Kabul.
~750s: After internal dissension, Umayyad caliphate gradually weakened. It was supplanted by a new dynasty - the Abbasids. Under Al Mansur the governor of Sijistan conquered Kandahar & collected tribute from king of Zabul.
769: 1st expedition against Kabul under Harun al-Rashid. Caliph was defeated by King Fromo Kesaro.

786: 2nd expedition against Kabul. Caliph Harun al-Rashid was defeated again!

811-14: King Pati Dumi invaded Caliph's Khorasan province. But,they were defeated by Arabs in 814
822: The last king Lagaturman of Turk Shahi was deposed by his Brahmin minister Kalar for his evil behavior toward people of Kabul.

Thus, the Buddhist Turk Shahi was succeeded by the Hindu Shahi founded by Kalar.

#History #Afghanistan #IslamicImperialism #DharmicAfghanistan
*The Brahmin minister was called Lalliya by Kalhana (Rajatarangini-fame). Kalar was his name found in Arab-Persian sources.

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