Mark Davis now. He's talking about celiac (severe gluten intolerance/sensitivity). He found that gluten-specific CD4+ T cells were directly associated with the response. (1/6) #fatigue #celiac #autoimmunity
Interestingly, they're mentioning elevated KIR+ CD8+ cells in autoimmunity. KIR is typically thought of as a marker for NKCs, & associated with their maturation (me saying this, not M Davis). Intriguing, then, that KIR+ CD8+ cells are associated w/autoimmunity... (2/6) #fatigue
...when decreased function of NKCs is associated with ME/CFS. Moreover, perforin (a compound created by NKCs and often a way of measuring their functionality) (3/6) #MECFS #immunology #fatigue
"We also saw this in people with active flu" but it disappeared when they recovered... and in #COVID19. Well, infection "breaks tolerance". You're throwing every T cell you have at the problem, whether it's auto-reactive or not. (4/6) #LongCOVID #fatigue #autoimmunity
Seems to be true in ME/CFS as well. Wilhelmy shout out! (J Wilhelmy does a great deal of benchwork at R. Davis's lab). Some gender differences present. (5/6) #fatigue #autoimmunity #MECFS
Conclusions for M. Davis's talk: (6/6) #fatigue #MECFS #autoimmunity
Q: "Why gluten?"
A: "Nobody knows"
Q from Klimas: "Age-related differences?"
A: We don't have enough people to know that, yet.
Q: What's the difference between "immune exhaustion" vs "changes in metabolism"
A: Some who are interested in immune exhaustion see it everywhere. There is enough confusion even just in cancer... labels are pretty terrible... (if someone reminds me I can expound on this l8r)
oop -- sorry, thought not completed. I think they were looking at perforin in these cell types as well.
Want to see the rest of the talks at this conference? Go here: .

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More from @exceedhergrasp1

27 Sep
Now we get to another area of particular interest for me: circadian rhythms and #fatigue. Elizabeth Klerman presenting. (1/5) #sleep
How does sleep/circadian rhythms affect various body systems and ultimate effects?
First I've heard of health disparities, here; well done, Klerman. #fatigue #sleep
Circadian rhythms WILL affect results in studies. Researchers, take note!
Record time of events, blood draws, etc.!
Include sleep metrics in subjects!
Circadian =/ diurnal.
Most studies that say they're talking about circadian rhythms are actually referencing diurnal rhythms.
Read 6 tweets
27 Sep
Dragana Ragulja reports: what actually is cause of death in sleep deprivation?
Loss of life in test animals on Day 10 of sleep deprivation led to dissection and finding of serious increases in ROS in the gut in particular (1/3)
Antioxidants specific to the gut can 'rescue' the animals tho. (2/3)
1) Sleep deprivation is a "bodywide phenomenon", says Ragulja.
2) Not all lack of sleep is created equal. Feelings of sleepiness can be blocked even though it's still fatal. "The fact that you feel fine on four hours of sleep does not mean you actually are fine." (3/3)
Read 4 tweets
27 Sep
ooooh, I am very interested in this! Pierre Magistretti is discussing the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle. I had a long conversation with someone who wrote a review paper on this one. (1/6) #fatigue #neurology
Lactate is required for energy for the brain. BUT -- it is not only this but also a signalling molecule for neuroplasticity & neuroprotection. (This idea of lactate being 'neuroprotective' is of particular interest to me.) (2/6) #fatigue #neurology
Magistretti is going at warp speed on this one, and I would have no idea what he was talking about if I hadn't already familiarized myself with the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle. However, he is clearly unfamiliar with #MECFS. (3/6) #fatigue #neurology
Read 7 tweets
27 Sep
Now we're up to Ron Davis and the metabolic trap hypothesis for #MECFS: yeast model for the metabolic trap. (1/7) #metabolism #fatigue
Tryptophan is largely metabolized by a protein made by an enzyme called IDO-1. A second enzyme, called IDO-2, may be a "more primitive" version of the same enzyme. IDO-1 is substrate-inhibited. (2/7) #metabolism #MECFS
In a small study with ~20 severe patients, all had at least one mutation in IDO-2. "It's not a requirement that you have a mutation in IDO-2" to have ME/CFS, says Davis. It doesn't rule out that mutations here can play a role. (3/7) #metabolism #MECFS
Read 9 tweets
27 Sep
Ian Lipkin, now: Lipkin is summarizing a number of different efforts associated with his research group. He is the first person at this conference that has mentioned how previous coronaviral outbreaks (SARS/MERS) have led to ME/CFS-like syndromes. (1/7) #LongCOVID #MEcfs #GWI
Talking about work at Centers, with shout-outs to each center as well as the nonprofits that have been involved, including our own @MEActNet. (Looking forward to sharing stuff re: this project soon!) (2/7) #MEcfs @Columbia_CII
Overall aims for the Collaborative Research Centers, funded by @NIH. (3/7) #fatigue #MEcfs
Read 8 tweets
27 Sep
Hanson thread.
Starts with: "well, I have no conflicts of interest to declare but I am sure I do think differently from some of those @NIH " #fatigue (1/8)
Preach, @DrMaureenHanson
Mentions low blood volume in ME/CFS.
"The fatigue in ME/CFS is not the result of lack of motivation". Many are willing to tolerate pain and fatigue in order to do something important. In fact, we have repeatedly needed to counsel patients not to overdo. #fatigue #MEcfs (2/8)
Abnormal NKC function is one of our most repeatable findings. (3/8) #pwME #MECFS
Read 9 tweets

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