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20.06.1943 | #OTD In southern and eastern Amsterdam a big razzia took place on the last remaining Jews. From the gathering places, 5524 Jews were transported to camp Westerbork. Among them were Joseph and Mijam Kulb. On July 9, 1943 they were murdered in #Sobibor. 👇🏼/1 Image
Miriam and Joseph lived just 100 meters from the gatheringpoint in Olympia Square. Joseph had been fired from the Amsterdam municipality on Feb. 28, 1941, and worked at the Jewish Council. Mirjam had been an inspector at the Ministry of Agriculture by profession. /2 Image
The round-up on June 20 was organized in secret. German and Dutch police officers closed off the areas and from 3.30 AM, cars drove around to announce the razzia: non-Jews were ordered to stay inside and Jews were told to report to one of the gatheringpoints. /3 ImageImage
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Unrest in West Germany: On 20 June 1948, a secretly planned economic reform is implemented in the Western occupied zones of Germany. A new USD-tied currency (the “Deutsche Mark”) is introduced to facilitate the flow of US capital into Germany as part of the Marshall Plan.
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This currency reform has two major consequences. First, it triggers a massive increase in prices throughout the economy, as pre-existing price controls are swept away, and wages remain frozen.
(Photo: Munich, August 1948)
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Months of social unrest follow. In October 1948, the US military even resorts to the deployment of tanks and tear gas to disperse protesters calling for the nationalization of industries in Stuttgart.
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19.06.1944 | #OTD Gottfried Schwarz, nicknamed Friedl, was killed bij partisans in Italy. He was an SS-Untersturmführer who participated in Aktion T4 and Operation Reinhard, notably as deputy camp commander of Belzec. He also commanded the Dorohucza labor camp. 👇🏼/1 Image
Member of the SS , Gottfried Schwarz, after the takeover of power by the Nazis was assigned to the Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler and guard of the @DachauMemorial concentration camp . During an action against partisans, he was shot in San Pietro al Natisone on June 19, 1944. /2 Image
Between 1939 and 1940 he joined the staff of Aktion T4 , in the framework of which he was responsible for the burning of corpses, especially in the extermination centers of Grafeneck and Bernburg . /3 ImageImage
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#OTD June 18th 1940
The Massacre of 44 Senegalese riflemen in Clamecy
The massacres of 44 soldiers of the French colonial troops from Morocco, Guinea or Senegal in Clamecy are among the most important perpetrated by the German army. We must not lose sight of the context of Image
2/n the months of May and June 1940 during which the struggle was extremely violent. When the fighting stopped on June 17, the French soldiers were scattered all over. Among them, 44 Senegalese and North African riflemen were taken to the Clamecy prison camp near the station. Image
3/n The legend, sticking perfectly with the stereotype of the savage conveyed in Nazi racist ideology, says that at the origin of the drama, a black soldier allegedly bit an SS officer. Image
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#OTD 1876 William Sealy Gosset b (d 16 Oct 1937) 🇬🇧Best known for Student's t-statistic & distribution, developed 1908 while working for Guinness Brewery. He is probably the first modern industrial statistician. 1/ ImageImage
2/ Guinness had almost doubled beer production between 1887 & 1914 so consistent quality was a concern. The problem was determining how representative a small sample might be of the whole batch. Gosset was assigned to the problem because he had taken maths at Oxford
3/ so was “less scared of this kind of problem than the other brewers”. Fisher greatly admired Gosset, calling him “one of the most original minds in contemporary science”.
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#OTD 1881 Hilda Hudson b (d 26 Nov 1965)🇬🇧 OBE. Best known to statisticians for developing the classic SIR model of epidemic infectious disease with Ronald Ross 1916-17 she also pioneered application of sophisticated mathematics to aeronautical engineering. 1/5 ImageImage
2/ She was the first ever female invited speaker at International Congress of Mathematicians 1912 where she read a paper on curved surfaces. Semple called her “a distinguished mathematician of great erudition and integrity”. The paper read at the Congr...
3/ During WWI, she joined the Admiralty to head the Structural Analysis section. With Letitia Chitty (1897-1982) & Beatrice Cave-Browne-Cave (1874-1947) they revolutionised fixed-wing aircraft design. After the war, they wrote the classic Handbook of Strength Calculations. The Admiralty Air Departmen...
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Bayerisches Viertel in Berlin-Schöneberg, 11. Juni 1993, #otd vor genau 30 Jahren: Einweihung der 80 Gedenktafeln für die "Orte des Erinnerns" in den Straßen rund um den Bayerischen Platz.

Die Mahnung ist geblieben und aktueller denn je: Nie wieder Nazityrannei, #niewieder! Das Foto zeigt eine Gedenkt...Das Foto zeigt eine Gedenkt...Das Foto zeigt eine Gedenkt...
Das Bayerische Viertel in Schöneberg wurde bis zum Jahr 1914 angelegt und erbaut - auf Initiative vor allem von Herrn Kommerzienrat Salomon #Haberland (geb. 1833, gest. 1914), eines in Berlin bereits alteingesessenen Textil- und Terrainunternehmers.

Das Viertel war ab dem Jahr 1914 zuerst eine Ortslage der damaligen kreisfreien Stadt Schöneberg und ab dem Jahr 1920 dann ein Stadtteil im neu geschaffenen "Groß-Berlin" - und der jüdische Bevölkerungsanteil war von Anfang an sehr hoch. Das Foto zeigt eine Gedenkt...
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11th June #TheDayInHistory

#OTD in 1885, "Dnyanodaya" newspaper published a letter written by Mahatma #JyotiraoPhule to #MGRanade (13 May 1885). Ranade invited #Jyotirao to attend 2nd annual conf of marathi writers. In reply, Jyotiba wrote a thought provoking letter to Ranade 👇 Image
In his letter #JyotiraoPhule said, "I was very glad to receive your invitation. But oh, dear brother, our institutions & books have nothing to do with authors who have not the courage or guys to grant willingly or openly bahuman rights, & from the prevailing tendencies..
it is presumed that they could never bring themselves to grant these rights to those who have been deprived of them. The teachings & message of their books are poles apart from the message from the books written by us.
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#OTD 10 June 1754, Washington received Dinwiddie's letter promoting him to the commander of the 1st Virginia Regiment. In return, he made a grandiose promise to rally the Six Nations against the French, but also complained about the lack of unity among the officers.
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As Innes succeeded Fry as the new commander-in-chief, Washington and other officers were promoted along with him. Seizing this opportunity, Washington recommended William Peyrouney, who had served as Ensign in the regiment for twelve years, as the new adjutant,
for he was "the most necesy belonging to a Regiment; distributing the daily order’s, receiving all reports, seeing order’s executed..." Most importantly, he was the only one who could speak French fluently.
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#OTD 9 June 1944 LIDICE was razed to the ground
After the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich, the Germans unleashed a severe retaliation. Hitler lashed out by murdering thousands of Jews. He wanted to kill 10,000 Czech political prisoners, but high-ranking Nazi ImageImage
2/n Heinrich Himmler convinced him that they needed Czechs to keep the Protectorate industrially productive. Still, more than 13,000 were arrested, and 5,000 were murdered in reprisals.

The bodies of the men and boys over age 16 of Lidice, Czechoslovakia, murdered by the Nazis. Image
3/n Due to false information, the Nazis thought the assassins were hiding in Lidice, a village near Prague, and also found a radioresistance transmitter in Ležáky. The Germans took revenge on Lidice by killing all 199 men in the town, arresting the 195 women and sending them
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#OTD 1983. The Labour Party fall to its heaviest defeat since the 1930s.

Micheal Foot says it is a "tragedy for the nation" but "what I have said in this election will prove to be true".

🧵 Forty years on – a thread on the 1983 election campaign Image
After the 1979 election, the Labour Party descended into a ‘civil war’ as the SDP formed and Tony Benn fought Denis Healey for the Deputy

Michael Foot was elected as leader and initially framed a unity candidate to hold the left and right together.

Polling showed that 50% of voters thought Mrs Thatcher was “the best Prime Minister available” in contrast to Foot who scored 22%. Image
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#OTD 45 years ago at Harvard University, Alexander Solzhenitsyn shocked his audience with a searing indictment of Western liberalism and materialism:… Image
"[I]n early democracies, as in the American democracy at the time of its birth, all individual human rights were granted because man is God's creature. That is, freedom was given to the individual conditionally, in the assumption of his constant religious responsibility."
"200 or even 50 years ago, it would have seemed quite impossible, in America, that an individual could be granted boundless freedom simply for the satisfaction of his instincts or whims. Subsequently, however, all such limitations were discarded everywhere in the West."
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#OTD 8 June 1754, before leaving for the Albany Council, Postmasters General Benjamin Franklin wrote "Short Hints towards a Scheme for Uniting the Northern Colonies"-his vision of a parliamentary union of the northern provinces for collective defense of the frontier.
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Franklin first broached the idea in 1751, amidst the escalating Anglo-French dispute over the Forks of the Ohio River or, La Belle Riviere. The neglect of those fertile tracts of land in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) had only rekindled the decades-old animosity.
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Alarmed by the increasing violence in the Pennsylvania backcountry, which almost always involved the native allies, Franklin warned James Parker, Postmaster of NY, to "form a Strength that the Indians may depend on for Protection, in Case of a Rupture with the French;
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#OTD in 1943 a transport of 880 Greek Jews from Thessaloniki arrived in Auschwitz. 582 of them were immediately sent to the gas chambers.
1/n ⬇️
2/n Of the estimated 71,600 Jews who lived in Greece at the time of the 1941 Nazi invasion, at least 58,885 perished in the Holocaust. Most Jews lived in Thessaloniki, formerly known as Salonika, which had been the religious and cultural hub for Sephardic Jews expelled from Spain
3/n in 1492. In February 1943, the Jews of Thessaloniki were given less than a month to move into a ghetto established in the Baron Hirsch quarter, and almost all their property was confiscated. Deportations began in March, and by August, almost all had been deported and murdered
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"At the core, the American citizen soldiers knew the difference between right and wrong, and they didn't want to live in a world in which wrong prevailed. So they fought, and won, and we all of us, living and yet to be born, must be forever profoundly grateful." - Stephen Ambrose Image
Picture above on the website of the US Army, #OTD 1944. Picture below from the @WWIImuseum. Image
more pictures from that day here.…
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#OTD Camp Vught - the children's transports
On 6 June 1943, the first transport of children to Sobibór departed from Kamp Vught.
1300 children were sent to the gas chambers. Image
2/n In Kamp Vught the children had already had a hard time. Children over the age of four were placed in separate barracks and rarely saw their parents, if at all. This was very hard for the children. Some children became rowdy, others very ill. Various contagious diseases were
3/n prevalent in the barracks.
At the beginning of June there were rumors that all children had to leave the camp. Indeed, on 5 June 1943, the management of camp Vught announced that almost 1300 Jewish children had to leave the camp. Image
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Emperor Lothar III fought his way into Rome to be crowned #OTD, June 4, 1133 in the church of the Lateran by Pope Innocent II.
Nothing about this coronation was smooth. The city of Rome was split between two great aristocratic clans, the Frangipani and the Pierleoni. 🧵 Image
Each had put their candidate on the papal throne, the Frangipani Innocent II and the Pierleoni Anaclet II. Anaclet II held Rome and was allied with Roger II of Sicily, who he had made king. (2/ Image
Innocent II had support in France, the empire, parts of Italy and more important than anything else of Bernhard of Clairvaux, the most eminent churchman in Europe. (3/ Image
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#OTD 2012 Genuchi Taguchi d (b 1 Jan 1924) 🇯🇵 founder of the Taguchi method for quality product improvement - reduction of process variation through robust design of experiments. His methods revolutionized manufacturing quality control practices & mindsets. 1/4 Image
2/ He collaborated throughout the 1950s with other notable statisticians such as CR Rao Fisher Shewart & was sponsored by Tukey at Princeton
3/ his methods differed from the conventional specifications based on tolerances alone but developed the concept of quality loss (rather than just quality)
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#OTD June 2, 1942, the first Berlin Jews were deported to theresienstadt
On 2 June 1942, at 06.07 am a train carrying 50 elderly Jewish men and women left platform one. Their destination? Theresienstadt – in what was then Nazi occupied Czechoslovakia. Image
2/n From then until 27 March 1945 116 departures would carry over 9,600 elderly Jewish citizens of Berlin to Theresienstadt. Anhalter Bahnhof was one of three stations in Berlin (the others being Bahnhof Grunewald and Moabit Goods Depot) from which over 50,000 Jews were Image
3/n transported from Berlin to their deaths in the ghettos and extermination camps in Nazi controlled eastern Europe.
Anhalter was a regular station and the Jewish men and women boarded a regular, scheduled departure for Czechoslovakia. The only clues that they were not regular Image
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#OTD 1866 Charles Davenport b (d 18 Feb 1944)🇺🇸@amstat Fellow 1921. Director Cold Spring Harbor Labs. His 1899 text ‘Statistical Methods with Special Reference to Biological Variation’ actively promoted statistical methods pioneered by Galton & Pearson for biological research 1/7 ImageImage
2/ Reviews were cool (which incensed him): there were a lot of mistakes in the first edition, the amount of hand calculation was formidable, & he seemed to underestimate the difficulties for most researchers in their application.
3/ If you think Fisher, Galton, & Pearson were vile eugenicists they were nothing compared to Davenport. He founded the Eugenics Record Office ERO in 1910, & launched proposals to transform the human race (actually only part of it) by selective breeding of the picked few,
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In the 1930s and 40s, zoot suits were the hottest trend for young Filipino, Mexican, and African American men like Malcolm X. An emblem of swag, of pride, of defiance. What White servicemen hated. Their mass attack on zoot suiters began #OTD 80 years ago in Los Angeles. A 🧵1/ Image
The zoot suit style began at the tail end of the Harlem Renaissance in 1930s. Young men flocked to urban dance halls to socialize and dance. As a compliment to their moves, dancers started wearing zoot suits. Wide pants. Long coats. Wide-brimmed hat. And watch chain. 2/ Image
Zoot suits grew in popularity, especially with young Black, Filipino, and Mexican American men residing in coastal cities. A young Malcolm X donned “sky-blue pants thirty inches in the knee” in Boston. Cesar Chavez was “challenging cops” looking “sharp and neat” in Delano, CA. 3/ ImageImage
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#OTD #Onthisday 28 May, 1754, Major Washington of the Virginia Regiment fought his first battle at Jumonville Glen, which ended in the murder of Ensign Jumonville. In Voltaire's words, it was a "torch lighted in the forests of America" that "set all Europe in conflagration.”
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At 10 p.m. on the 27th, Washington set out from his camp in the Great Meadows, Pennsylvania with a party of about 40 Virginia militiamen. They had no idea where they were headed for, and what catastrophic liability their would come to bear.
(Wa. to Dinwiddie, 29 May 1755)
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The only intelligence available to them was the unexpected Express from the Half-King, received by Washington two hours ago-that "he was coming to join us, they had seen along the road the tracks of two [Frenchmen] which went down into a gloomy hollow, and that he imagined
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#OTD #Onthisday 27 May, 1754, Christopher Gist and the Half-King confirmed that the French were advancing from the Crossing of Youghiogany.
Washington, overflowing with confidence that he had prepared "a charming field for encounter," set off for the French camp.
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Yesterday, "a small light partys of Horse (wagon Horses)to reconnoitre the Enemy, and discover [the enemy's] strength and motion" had returned "without seeing anything."
But early in the morning of the 27th, Gist returned to the camp with a frightening intelligence.
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On the 26th, his plantation was nearly sacked by fifty Frenchmen under La Force until the two Indians scouts "persuaded them from their design." The French were said to have asked Gist, "what was become of the Half-King?"
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#OTD #Onthisday 26 May, 1754, Lieutenant-Colonel George Washington receives a letter from Colonel William Fairfax sent by Colonel Joshua Fry, that Governor Robert Dinwiddie has arrived at Winchester, and was "desirous to see the Half King," a Seneca leader.
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Three days ago, Tanaghrisson or the Half-King, whose childhood spent in French captivity sustained his aversion to the French expansion into the Forks of the Ohio, had offered to guide Washington and his 'English brethren' to the French encampment in the Great Meadows.
He personally wrote to the 22-year-old officer:
"...I exhort you, therefore, my English brethren, to be on your guard against them, for they intend to strike the first English, whom they see. They have been on the march for two days. I know not their number.
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