Discover and read the best of Twitter Threads about #OTD

Most recents (24)

The physicist and astronomer Karl Schwarzschild was born #OTD in 1873. In 1915, while serving in the German army on the Russian front, he found the first exact solution of Einstein’s theory of general relativity: a non-rotating black hole.
At first, Schwarzschild was skeptical of general relativity. But then, while on leave from the front, he heard Einstein speak at the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Einstein used his new theory to explain the anomalous precession in the orbit of Mercury, and Schwarzschild was sold.
Returning to the front, Schwarzschild began his investigations into this wild new theory. He quickly found an exact solution of the GR field equations that described the gravitational field outside a massive and non-rotating spherical body.
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#OTD in 1964, white parents in Queens staged a protest against integrating their school
I'm glad they got arrested.
I wonder how badly the cop got assaulted....
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#GDR #OTD 1965 - Olympics recognizes GDR and allows separate East and West German teams at next Games. (1)
At first Olympic Games as an individual team, the GDR earns 1 Gold 2 Silver and 2 Bronze in Grenoble in 1968, 10th overall (2)
For more on East Germany's difficulties in gaining recognition as a separate and sovereign country, check out historyned.blog/2016/09/20/was…
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#GDR #OTD 1949 – 70 years ago, the German Democratic Republic was founded from the Soviet Occupation Zone (1) #DDR70 #DDR70Jahre
30 years ago #otd, in 1989, the GDR celebrated its 40th anniversary. Here a parade attended by USSR leader Mikhail Gorbachev (2)
On the Day of the Republic in 1989, police and Stasi suppressed mass demonstrations in Leipzig, but protests continued to grow regardless (3)
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12. The Legacy of US UK France Canada Germany Italy Poland Australia Spain Portugal New Zealand Turkey Romania Denmark Belgium Czech Republic Norway Bulgaria South Korea Azerbaijan Singapore Nato in Afganistan

#Afghanistan #CrimesAgainstHumanity #WarCrime #CrimesAgainstChildren
Invasion of Afghanistan (2001-present) - War crime 🤨👇🏼
1. The Legacy of US UK France Canada Germany Italy Poland Australia Spain Portugal New Zealand Turkey Romania Denmark Belgium Czech Republic Norway Bulgaria South Korea Azerbaijan Singapore Nato in Afganistan🤨👇🏼
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#GDR #OTD 1989 – In effort to stop mass emigration, SED suspends visa free travel to Czechoslovakia from East Germany (1)
In Dresden, #otd in 1989, the arrival of train full of East German refugees from the Prague Embassy en route to West Germany sparks large demonstrations (2)
East German police in full riot gear dispersed protests at Dresden train station and arrested 1,300 in the process. (3)
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#GDR #OTD 1969 – Opening of Kulturpark Plänterwald – known today as Spreepark – in East Berlin. (1)
Kulturpark Plänterwald (Spreepark) had on average 1.7 Million visitors per year prior to 1989. (2)
Renamed Spreepark after 1989, the park went bankrupt in 2001 and is now a ruin popular amongst instagram photographers. (3)
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#GDR #OTD 1990 – The German Democratic Republic ceases to exist. (1)
Here are celebrations of German unification at the Bundestag in Berlin #otd in 1990. By contrast, an anti-unification demonstration in Frankfurt. (2)
On alternatives to German unification as it happened in 1990, check out: historyned.blog/2015/10/07/the…
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#GDR #OTD 1953 – The paramilitary “Combat Groups of the Working Class” - Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse - is established in East Germany (1)
The Combat Groups created after 1953 uprising as a volunteer militia, recruited from factories and workplaces (2)
The largest deployment of Combat Groups came in 1961 with the construction of Berlin Wall; tasked with guarding the large workforce at the border. (3)
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"On The Electrodynamics Of Moving Bodies,” Einstein’s paper making the case for special relativity, was published in Annalen der Physik #OTD in 1905.

Original manuscript:
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.100…
English translation:
fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstei…
Let's go through some of his arguments! At the beginning of the paper, Einstein presents two reasons why our understanding of electrodynamics (the rules governing charges, currents, and electromagnetic fields) must be incomplete.
First, he notes odd asymmetries in explanations of electrodynamic phenomena involving moving objects, when the phenomena themselves depend only on relative motion. Second, he reminds the reader that attempts to detect the motion of Earth through a “luminiferous ether” had failed.
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#GDR #OTD 1990 – Miners occupy the “Mommel” mine shaft in Trusetal, East Germany to protest closures and layoffs (1)
Werra Mine in 1974 - Kali Kombinat mining a major East German employer esp. in Harz mountains - (2)
Restructuring and then privatization of Kali resulted in more than 8,000 miners laid off in 1990 alone with many more later (3)
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#GDR #OTD 1978 – Pastor Rolf Günther self-immolates in East German town of Falkenstein (1)
Unlike Oskar Brüsewitz two years earlier, Günther’s self-immolation not a political protest; actually part of a theological conflict within the church (2)
Rolf Günther’s suicide was apolitical but was still used by Stasi to crack down on church-based dissident groups (3)
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#GDR #OTD 1979 – Around 50 members of a church youth group organize to plant 5,000 trees and bushes in Schwerin (1)
This tree planting was one of first actions of the nascent independent environmental movement in East Germany (2)
GDR environmental movement increasingly politicized in 1980s and worked with dissidents and peace activists (3)
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#GDR #OTD 2010 – Death of East German artist, peace activist and dissident Bärbel Bohley (1)
Bohley trained as a painter; Käthe Kollwitz was inspiration; became a leading member of the peace movement (2)
In 1983, Bohley was imprisoned by the Stasi for six weeks accused of “treasonable information transmission” (3)
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Ida Henrietta Hyde was born #OTD in 1857. She invented a micro-electrode capable of stimulating and monitoring electrical activity in cells.

Later in this thread there will be an amazing story about an octopus and Kaiser Wilhelm II.

Image: American Physiological Society
Ida Henrietta Hyde's family lost everything in the Great Chicago Fire. She went to work, at age 14, to help put her brother through school. Through her own persistence she was eventually able to attend college and study biology. For a year at age 24, then three more years at 31.
She did some graduate work at Bryn Mawr and Woods Hole, where she worked on the neurology of jellyfish. A fellowship then allowed her to pursue her PhD at Heidelberg. It was, predictably, full of barriers. Women couldn't attend physiology lectures, so she had to borrow notes.
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#OTD 1972 Munich Olympics, the Black September Group took 11 Israeli athletes hostage, tortured and murdered them. 11 innocent victims, every one was somebody's husband, brother or son.This year, we pay tribute to them individually.
MOSHE WEINBERG. May his memory be a blessing.
#OTD 1972 Munich Olympics, the Black September Group took 11 Israeli athletes hostage, tortured and murdered them. 11 innocent victims, every one was somebody's husband, brother or son.This year, we pay tribute to them individually.
YOSSEF ROMANO. May his memory be a blessing.
#OTD 1972 Munich Olympics, the Black September Group took 11 Israeli athletes hostage, tortured and murdered them. 11 innocent victims, every one was somebody's husband, brother or son.This year, we pay tribute to them individually.
DAVID BERGER. May his memory be a blessing.
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#OTD in 1913 was born one of the greatest mathematicians and scientists of the 20-th century and, undoubtedly , of all time - Israel Moiseevich Gelfand. Gelfand’s contributions to mathematics are enormous: over 800 papers on a variety of
areas of mathematics, over 800 papers and 20 monographs on functional analysis, topology, algebra, group representation theory, generalized functions, probability theory and applications to physics (especially quantum mechanics) and above all to mathematical biology, where he
created entire research areas and institutes. What makes Gelfand’s achievements even more incredible is the fact that he was largely self-taught and never completed his high school education.
He is also the most remarkable exemplar of the antisemitism that prevailed in the
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#GDR #OTD 1978 – First German cosmonaut Sigmund Jähn (r) launches into space aboard Soyuz 31 (1)
Crowds listening to reports of Sigmund Jähn’s spaceflight at the Weltzeituhr on Alexanderplatz, East Berlin #otd in 1978 (2)
East German cosmonaut Sigmund Jähn on spaceflight "what I saw then was total happiness: Our Earth, in shining in bright blue. Just like a dream.” (3)
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Aug23 1939: #GermanReich & #USSR entered into a non-aggression pact, signed by J. #Ribbentrop & V. #Molotov
The treaty had a secret protocol on the division of sovereign states of 🇪🇪 🇫🇮 🇱🇹 🇱🇻 🇵🇱 and 🇷🇴
In Sept1939 both states attacked 🇵🇱,starting #WWII.

#80WW2 #BlackRibbonDay
1939: On 1 Sept, Germany attacked Poland. The German battleship Schleswig-Holstein shelling a 🇵🇱 base on the Westerplatte peninsula fired the opening shots of WWII.

On 17 Sept, Red Army invaded 🇵🇱, as set out in the secret protocol of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact.

#80WW2
Sept1-Oct6 1939: During the Poland campaign, battles were fought against the aggressors, #GermanReich & #USSR.

The campaign's largest clash was Battle of the #Bzura, an offensive maneuver at the rear of the #German troops heading toward #Warsaw without almost any cover.

#80WW2
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#OTD 20th August 1944

Day 2 of the battle for Hill 262, #Maczuga

"All is lost. The Canadians cannot relieve us. We have no more than 110 fit men, no food, five shells per gun and fifty rounds per man.

This night we die for Poland and civilisation!"

/1


#WW2
#Falaise
#Maczek
2/

Jarzembowski sets out the Polish position as dawn broke on 20th August.

The Eastern sector, under squadrons of the 2nd Armoured Regt and infantry from the 8th Battalion, looked down over gentle open slopes. It would face relentless attacks from Bittrich's II SS-Panzerkorps.
3/

From the west, dozens of retreating German columns "flowed like a river" along the Dives valley - joined in greater numbers as the day progressed by those escaping from St Lambert and the fighting around Hill 113, where General von Elfeld had surrendered to the Poles.

...
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#OTD 19th Aug '44

Day 1 of the Battle for Hill 262: #Maczuga

"There was confusion among the German columns; huge trucks filled with troops, guns drawn by six-horse teams, staff cars, recon half-tracks and two enormous assault guns.

I gave the order: "Fire!"

1/
#WW2
#Maczek
2/

Following Von Kluge's order of 16th August for a German retreat from the West, the Allied troops focused on trapping the retreating units within the 'Falaise Pocket'.

The Polish 1st Armoured Division under Maczek was crucial - "the cork in the bottle", in Monty's words.
3/

Maczek reorganised his Division into two all-arms battlegroups: the first tasked with capturing and holding Chambois and the other to seize Hill 262: two peaks astride the only escape route the Germans could exploit - beyond the strength of the Allies, Model assumed.
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#GDR #OTD 1962 – 18 year old bricklayer Peter Fechter is shot and killed while trying to cross the Berlin Wall (1)
Fechter screamed in pain lying in the death strip in East Berlin, but no help was sent from either side. It took an hour for him to bleed out. (2)
Jumping a 2m high section of the Berlin Wall Peter Fechter was shot in the pelvis. His friend Helmut Kulbeik got away. (3)
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#OTD 1933, the Christie Pits Riot took place in Toronto, which I love to talk abt b/c it brings together my love of #TOHist #Baseball ⚾️ and #antifascista...a thread.
In the summer of 1933, Torontonians flocked to the city's beaches to cool down. At Balmy Beach local WASP youth didnt want to share the amenities w/ "foreign" visitors particularly Jews, so they organized the Swastika Club to intimidate the visitors. #TOHist #ChristiePitsRiot
Where would Toronto youths have got the idea of forming gangs and wearing swastika armbands to intimidate Jews? From reading newspaper reporting abt the rise of Adolf H!tler and the Nazi party earlier in 1933, and their anti-semitic rhetoric. (Not knowing where that would lead)
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#GDR #OTD 1961 – East German soldier Conrad Schumann defects across the still being built Berlin Wall. (1)
Conrad Schumann became a Cold War icon due to the photo of his escape, but he found life difficult as a celebrity in West Germany cut off from family (2)
After the end of the GDR Schumann said "Only since 9 November 1989 have I felt truly free." (3)
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