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--Thread on Origin of the Śatarudrīya Mantrās--

Caution: This write-up is for those with an open mind. If you have an iron-clad presumption reg Veda, kindly stop reading to avoid your beliefs being contradicted (& blaming me). I respect all traditions while adhering to mine.+
A sūkta has some reason for manifesting in the mind of the rishi. The Śatarudrīyam too has a reason, described in Kanda 9 of Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa (SB). It has a support in the Mbh as well, something missed by sayana, bhatta-bhāskara etc+

#Vedas #Hinduism #SanatanaDharma #Vedic
Link to the indologist translation of SB Kanda 9 here -….

Due to lack of space, I am not reproducing sanskrit text here so kindly refer to this link for the sanskrit text of SB Kanda 9-… +

#Hinduism #Vedas #Hindus #Vedic #Sanatani
I’d also like you to first read convo between Brahmā & Rudra in Mahābhārata (Santi Parva) here which is the origin story for Rudram-….

I will be quoting from that. Perhaps keep all the links open in separate tabs.+

#Hinduism #Mahabharata #Vedas #Vedic
Before each translation, I will specify mantra number for Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, starting with SB I take this one first as it is the core of the topic. Attached screenshot shows sanskrit text + indologists’ translation for comparison👇 (refer previous link too)

SB [Reason for worship w/ “Śatarudrīya”: When Prajāpati (Brahmā) became unfastened from Yoga, the senses (devátā) left him, ie, he lost control of them. Only that of a form of remembrance of desired object (deva), remained extended in (his mind) - Anger (Manyu)]+

“Devátā” refer to the senses that shine out the objects of perception. Manyu is also “Deva” as anger also shines out the object in the form of repeated thoughts about it. This incident is clearly described in the Mbh link from earlier (Brahmā-Rudra samvāda)+

#Hinduism #Vedas
yadāhaṃ nādhigacchāmi buddhyā bahu vicārayan saṃhāram āsāṃ vṛddhānāṃ tato māṃ krodha āviśa

“Brahmā: When I could not attain (that knowledge) of destroying all beings by my intellect (Yoga), even after long deliberation, then anger entered my mind.”+

#Hinduism #Vedas
SB - [Brahmā cried, ie, succumbed to rajo-guṇa. Those tears (attachments from rajo-guṇa) poured onto anger (Manyu), ie, constant thoughts on that unattainable object led to intense attachment to anger.]

“Crying” is a metaphor for attachments or rajo-guṇa.+

SB - [That (anger) became (associated with) Prajāpati’s mind that causes weeping (Rudra), which has many attachments (śatáśīrṣā), sees numerous objects, ie, duality (sahasrākṣáḥ), many sense-organs supporting the self (śatéṣudhi).]+

#Hinduism #SanatanaDharma #Vedas
Anger becomes associated with mind which is called “rudra” in the Bri.Up as it causes weeping. “śatam” means “many-in-one”. Attachments in the form of constant hankerings are the many heads (śīrṣā) of the mind.+

#Hinduism #Vedas #Hindus #Vedic #YajurVeda #SanatanaDharma
“sahasrākṣáḥ” – Perception of numerous things. The mind sees or illumines numerous entities. The idea is, Brahmā lost the equipoise of Yoga where one only sees the self everywhere, and started seeing differences in all living beings, a cause of his passion.+

#Hinduism #Vedas
“iṣudhi” means that holding or supporting (dhi) arrow (iṣu). Mundakopaniśad refers to Atman as arrow. Brhadāraṇyaka 4.2.22 says the self abides within sense-organs. So, “śatéṣudhi” refers to mind with many sense organs that support the self in such experiences.+

Continuing with the translation,

SB - [Those other drops (the senses), entered abodes of experience (lokā́n) numerously (in various ways), in thousands (in abundance of experience), and they are called “rudrās” as they arise from the weeping (mind).]+

#Hinduism #Vedas
Again, Mbh says “tasya roṣān mahārāja khebhyo 'gnir…” -- “In consequence of the anger of Brahmā́, a fire ensued out of his body, burning all directions, the world of the gods, earth, all beings etc”+

#Hinduism #Vedas #Mahabharata #Sanatani #SanatanDharm #SanatanaDharma #Vedic
Tear drops in SB = Fire born of Brahmā’s mind from attachment for destruction in Mbh. Fire can be called Rudra - it causes crying (injury to all beings), has many tongues (śatáśīrṣā), illumines objects (sahasrākṣáḥ), has many flames that support pain (śatéṣudhi)+

Fire in Mbh is literal & SB uses “tears” to explain why it occured – Brahmā’s rajo guṇa & wayward senses. Senses of Brahma in SB are called “vipruṣa” – drops, based on “pruṣṇāti” – to fill (with experiences). It also can mean "spark of fire” (pruṣyati – to burn)+

SB [Brahmā's mind (Rudra) of many thoughts comprising hankerings (śatáśīrṣā), seeing many (sahasrākṣáḥ), w/ many sense organs as the support of the self (śatéṣudhi) with bow strung, ie, contemplating on the non-acquisition of object of desire continuously..]+

SB […fitting arrow to bow, ie, placing the senses towards anger due to non-attainment, inspired fear being established in desire for food (attainment of desired object). The gods were afraid of that disposition of Brahmā that can hurt them]+

#Hinduism #Vedas #Vedic
Act of drawing the bow implies Brahmā's incessant contemplation on his failure to attain the object. Act of drawing the string (or placing the arrow as it were) refers to placing the senses towards attachments or anger. Upanishads explain these metaphors.+

#Hinduism #Vedas
SB [The gods (headed by Rudradeva) said to Brahmā, “We are afraid of this mind of yours, that it may cause injury to us.”]

Mbh also says Rudra (on behalf of all) appealed to Brahmā́: prajā sarga nimittaṃ me kāryavattām imāṃ prabho….+

#Vedas #Mahabharata
“Rudra said: Master! My appeal is on behalf of all the beings created by you. Do not be angry with them! The fire born of your rajo-guṇa (tejas) is burning all beings. Moved by compassion, (I appeal), do not be angry, O Lord of the Universe.” +

#Hinduism #Vedas #Mahabharata
SB [Brahmā said, “Collect food, ie, mantrās that glorify Brahman for controlling senses, and appease it (my mind)”. They collected that food (mantrās glorifying Brahman), the Śatarudrīya, for him, and in so much as they pacified his mind (ie, made it sāttvika)]+

Brahmā wanted the gods to remember and collate together mantrās from different sections of Vedas into one portion for him that could grant the fruit of curbing the mind. That came to be known as the Śatarudrīya. So, it shows these mantrās were scattered at one point.

SB [And as they appeased that mind causing weeping, which has many hankerings (śatáśīrṣāṇāṃ rudrám), those mantrās are called “śataśīrṣarudraśamanī́ya”, ie, those that calm the mind causing weeping, having many hankerings]+

#Hinduism #Vedas #SanatanaDharma #Hindus
SB 9.1.1 And that is called indirectly the Śatarudrīya, for the gods like the indirect speech (ie, they guard the truth as a secret). And so, the sacrificer collects the food of the form of the Śatarudrīya mantras and appeases his mind (makes it sāttvika).]+

#Hinduism #Vedas
Mbh also says Brahmā subdued his senses:

srutvā tu vacanaṃ devaḥ sthānor niyatavāṅmanaḥ tejas tat svaṃ nijagrāha punar evāntar ātmanā

“Hearing Sthānu, Brahmā, of restrained speech (senses) & mind, himself restrained the fire (of passion) in his mind.”+

It is not easy to restrain mind & senses even for gods. Mbh says Brahmā restrained his senses, but it implies effort of gods collating Rudram mantrās for Brahmā's upāsanā, as in SB. Mbh also says pacified Brahmā got what he sought, which can't be without some sādhana+

Having understood the origin of the Śatarudrīya, let us look at some mantrās in the same section of the SB which support this interpretation by further elaboration. We look at the first mantra in Kanda 9 of SB ( now +

#Vedas #Hinduism #SanatanaDharma
SB [Now this Śatarudrīya worship is performed. That fire encompassing all (Sarvogni) here has been made ready (for destruction/also as sacrificial fire). That (fire) is (associated with) mind which causes weeping, which illumines sense objects (rudro devatā)] +

SB [The constant thoughts that shine the object of attainment (devās) bestowed on Brahmā’s mind that imperishable desire (amrtam), which is of the highest nature (superior to mind, senses, self etc)]+

#Hinduism #Vedas #Hindus #SanatanaDharma #SanatanDharm #Sanatani
Note: Desire is “amrtam” as it is difficult to conquer, so, imperishable. “devās” are constant thoughts Brahma had, creating a hankering for what he couldn’t attain (Gita 2.62)+

#Hinduism #Vedas #Hindus #Vedic #Sanatani #SanatanaDharma #SanatanDharm #Vedanta
SB [The mind abided there burning (with rajo guṇa), longing for food (of the form of experiences). The gods were afraid of (Prajāpati with) such a mind hurting them.]+

#Hinduism #Vedas #Hindus #Vedic #Sanatani #SanatanaDharma #SanatanDharm
SB [They spoke, “Let us collect food (mantrās) for that mind, so we will appease it (render it sattva). They gathered food, by which the mind is appeased (Śantadevatya), and in so much as the mind is appeased by them, it (those mantras) are called Śantadevatya.]

SB [Śantadevatya is called indirectly the Śatarudrīya, for the gods like the indirect (expressions), And so (in like manner), the sacrificer bestows upon the mind that desire which is of the highest nature...]

#Hinduism #Vedas #Hindus #SanatanaDharma #SanatanDharm
The gods called the mantrās denoted by Śantadevatya – That by which mind is appeased, as Śatarudrīya – Related to the numerous (Śata) hankerings (rudrās). Because they believe the truth is to be guarded and not expressed directly. In the process confusing us too😉.+

SB [...The mind abides burning (with rajo guṇa), longing for food (of the form of experiences). He collects the food of the form of the mantras glorifying Brahman, and thereby appeases the mind.]+

#Hinduism #Vedas #Hindus #Vedic #Sanatani #SanatanDharm #SanatanaDharma
Next, we look at SB – [The mind (deva) which became associated with many hankerings (śataśīrṣa) is the ruler of the objects of enjoyment (kṣatrá), and the (senses) which exist in confirmity to the drops (attachments) are members….] +

#Hinduism #Vedas #Hindus #Vedic
SB […And so they (the senses) placing the chief (mind) in front, assigned to it, the first anuvāka as his special share, to appease it, ie, impart sattva.]

Why is 1st anuvāka special? It was explained in the mantra previous to this one, as below+

SB [By “Salutations to anger of Rudra (destroyer of saṃsāra-dukha)”, he does “not mine" (renounces) anger extended within his mind. “Salutations to your arrow and arms”, for it was by his arms and arrow that he (Rāma) was inspiring terror (to ocean king).”]

Meditate on Lord’s anger to quell your own anger. Say “nama:” (I’m yours) to the Lord's anger in surrender, Say “nama:” (not mine) to your own anger in relinquishing it.

Rāma’s anger is explained in my older tweets here— +

#Hinduism #Vedas #Ramayana
SB [Now, some mantrās have “namaskārās” on both sides and some have on one side only. Former are (associated with) those (mind and senses) which are more formidable (on account of being uncontrollable) and with lack of sāttvīka buddhi (áśāntatarā). ]+

#Hinduism #Vedas
SB [He thus appeases them by (repeated) “nama:” indicating intense detachment, by worship of Brahman (ie, the intensity of prostration is increased to engage the senses and mind with more fervor in experience of Brahman)]+

#Hinduism #Vedas #Hindus #SanatanaDharma
That concludes the discourse. Now, Now, I give a short summary of Rudram: 1st anuvāka praises the anger of Brahman to quell one’s own anger. By this, grace of Brahman is obtained. Next, 2nd anuvāka glorifies Brahman using “namaḥ” on both sides to subdue the senses.

3rd and 4th anuvākās now turn controlled mind and senses inward to reflect on the tattvas of the self and body. Double namaskārās are still used as the mind has not achieved complete poise yet.+

#Vedas #Hinduism #Sanatani #SanatanDharm #Rudram #Hindus
5th and 6th anuvākās represent the mind and senses completely aligned with the self, ready to meditate on Brahman - “abhyāsa yoga” or repeated rememberance of the qualities of Brahman that are opposites of each other, with one “namaḥ” as the mind is sattva now.+

#Vedas #Hindus
In 7th anuvāka Yogi does upāsaṇa after completion of abhyāsa yoga culminating in a vision of Brahman appearing in the mind. 8th anuvāka is the Yogi’s description of this vision of Brahman. 9th anuvāka dwells on types of sādhakās and how mind is finally subdued.+

10th anuvāka represents the upāsaka requesting Brahman to provide accessories for kāmya karmās for a sāttvika life hereafter. 11th anuvāka is a mix of all that was learned in the previous anuvākās regarding mind, senses, self and paramātma.+

#Hinduism #Vedas #Vedic #Sanatani
Thus, Śatarudrīya of 11 anuvākās for 10 senses and mind arose. It has been described to grant the phala of “indrīya nigraha” for experiencing the self, as an accessory to jnāna yoga, in the Kaivalya Upanishad, Kūrma Purana and Jabala Upanishad.

Thank you for reading//

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