As we learn more about #COVIDvaccine #immune response in people w/ #immunedisorders, remember that not all #immunodeficiencies are created equal. You might see in the news claims about #vaccines not working in the #immunocompromised, but that's not always true. A 🧵
One of the earliest articles showed 15% of #transplant patients were Ab positive after dose 1. This increased to 54% after dose 2, but varied by medications being taken. and
In #cancer patients, Ab response varied by type of cancer. Two studies showed 92-95% w/ solid tumors were Ab pos after the 2nd dose. One showed only 60% w/ hematological cancers were positive. (both) (solid tumor only)
We also have inborn errors of immunity (#primaryimmunodeficiency). There are over 400 distinct disorders caused by mutations in the genome in places that affect the immune response. Raise your hand if you think they'll all have the same vaccine response.
In this population, it is dependent on which mutation, medications received (i.e. immunoglobulin replacement therapy) and the frequency of treatment, stem cell transplant status, etc. Two small studies have been published on Ab response:
One had 11 patients: 10/11 had an Ab response! Only 2/10 had noticeable immune suppression though and 8 received replacement Ig. The 2nd had 26 ppl, most w/ Ab deficiency. 22/26 had replacement Ig, 18/26 were Ab pos.
There's still so much we don't know about the #immuneresponse to #COVID19 #vaccines in people with #immunedisorders. But one thing we DO know is that we can't assume they're all equal. Hope this helped! Stay safe everyone!

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More from @Iplaywithgerms

28 Mar 20
I want to separately pull out this graphic from the @ASMicrobiology #COVID19 #testing paper since I think it’s *super* helpful. #RNA tests tell us if you’re infected right now (mostly, see next tweet). #Serology tells us if you were recently(ish) infected.
1st important point. RNA tests can pick up any viral RNA, whether that’s live infectious virus or garbage RNA still in your body. Also the sample might not capture RNA (say the virus is in your GI not your nose & we sample your nose). This can give false negatives.
2nd point. Serology doesn’t typically make for good rapid tests, since your body needs time to make antibodies. You don’t magically make them as soon as you see a pathogen, it takes a few days for the machinery to get warmed up and going (think like a factory).
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10 Feb 20
On to the Heliophysics labs @NASAGoddard!! #StateOfNASA
Scientists can place an artificial eclipse over the sun so that the dimmer features can be seen. @NASAGoddard #StateOfNASA
Check out… to learn about space weather, since I’m not going to be able to do it justice. #StateOfNASA
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10 Feb 20
Today is #stateofNASA day!!! Buckle your seatbelts friends because you’re in for some SPACE SCIENCE content!! I’ll be heading to @NASAGoddard shortly and will bring you along for the ride! (Actual gif of my face attached) #NASASocial
About to get our badges and learn some science.
I’m official! #StateOfNASA I’ll be adding to this tweet thread throughout the day, so I can unroll it at the end. The original tweet is pinned so it’ll be easy to find!
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From the @CDCgov update on #coronavirus: 110 persons under investigation in US from 26 states. Only 5 have been confirmed.
@CDCgov Assay protocol for test has been published, and CDC is working to prioritize state health departments for receiving tests. Will release to other domestic/intl labs later.

Sequences from 2 US patients have been uploaded to Genbank.
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18 Oct 19
#Event201 begins. Check it out online to participate virtually! #pandemic #biosecurity
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