#OTD in 1864 Brig. Gen. Henry H. Lockwood wrote to his superiors about his concerns regarding Maryland's apprenticeship system, especially as it applied to newly emancipated children. Lockwood explained how former enslavers were exploiting the system to their own advantage. Image
#Slavery was abolished in #Maryland on November 1, 1864, when the state legislature adopted a new state constitution. The new constitution did not outlaw forced labor. Children of "unfit" parents could legally forced into apprenticeships that often times resembled slavery.
The children of newly emancipated people were overwhelmingly subject to forced apprenticeships, often times being forced to work for the people that formerly enslaved them and their parents. This development was concerning to General Lockwood.
Lockwood wrote, "...the apprenticing works advantageously only for the rich slave holder–generally disloyal–and disadvantageously for the poor white tenant and colored man."
Lockwood observed how formerly enslaved parents "...were told, that they must select masters, willing or unwilling." Although he agreed with the "spirit" of the apprenticeship law, Lockwood felt that "...gross abuses have attended it." "Something should be done," he continued.
The Freedman's Bureau began challenging Maryland's apprenticeship system by 1866. With the help of the Bureau, the parents of children who were illegally apprenticed mounted legal challenges through the state's court system.
As a result, thousands of children were released from their indentures and returned to their parents.

You can read Lockwood's letter here:


#OnThisDay #Onthisdayinhistory #TodayInHistory #History #UShistory #AmericanHistory #CivilWarHistory

• • •

Missing some Tweet in this thread? You can try to force a refresh

Keep Current with TheCivilWarDoc

TheCivilWarDoc Profile picture

Stay in touch and get notified when new unrolls are available from this author!

Read all threads

This Thread may be Removed Anytime!


Twitter may remove this content at anytime! Save it as PDF for later use!

Try unrolling a thread yourself!

how to unroll video
  1. Follow @ThreadReaderApp to mention us!

  2. From a Twitter thread mention us with a keyword "unroll"
@threadreaderapp unroll

Practice here first or read more on our help page!

More from @TheCivilWarDoc1

Dec 14
"Sectional feeling no longer holds back the love we feel for each other. The old flag again waves over us in peace with new glories.” Those words were spoken by #President #McKinley during a speech in #Atlanta #OTD in 1898 only four days after the end of the Spanish American War.
By 1898, the #LostCause narrative of the #CivilWar had made much headway in the minds of white Americans, North and South. The #JimCrow South was emerging by the late 19th century and was accompanied by a tidal wave of white supremacist terrorism.
McKinley's message of reunion was only meant for white Americans. Only a month earlier white terrorists violently overthrew #Wilmington, #NorthCarolina's biracial government, killing hundreds of Black Wilmingtonians in the process.

Read 8 tweets
Dec 13
#OTD in 1862, #Confederate soldiers repulsed a massive #Union assault on the second day of the #Battle of #Fredericksburg. Wave after wave of Union soldiers were mowed down during a full frontal assault against Confederate troops positioned at Marye’s Heights. Image
After the Battle of #Antietam a few months earlier, General #McClellan allowed Lee's Army to retreat back to #Virginia to fight another day. #President #Lincoln then relieved McClellan of command and replace him with General Ambrose #Burnside. Image
Burnside quickly planned a fall offensive to move on #Richmond. However, the Union Army's operation faced logistical setbacks, allowing Lee to settle in at Fredericksburg. Burnside chose to attack Lee head on, a decision that proved disastrous.
Read 9 tweets
Nov 17
Prominent Black physician and abolitionist James McCune Smith passed away #OTD in 1865. Smith, who penned the introduction of Frederick Douglass' second autobiography My Bondage My Freedom (1855), was the first Black person to receive a medical degree in the United States.
Smith was born enslaved in 1813 in Manhattan and received a formal education as a child under New York's gradual emancipation laws. He was free at the age of 14 on July 4, 1827. He graduated from African Free School in NYC and enrolled at the University of Glasgow.
He received his medical degree in Glasgow in 1837 and moved back to New York to establish a medical practice. According to Bryan Greene of @SmithsonianMag, Smith also opened the first Black-owned pharmacy in the United States.
Read 8 tweets
Nov 16
William Breedlove, a free Black man and future member of the Virginia Constitutional Convention in 1867, was convicted of harboring a fugitive enslaved man #OTD in 1863. Breedlove was pardoned in December, sparing him the punishment of being sold into slavery.
Breedlove was born free around 1820 in Virginia. His father, James Davis, was white and his mother, Polly Breedlove, was a free Black woman. William became a blacksmith and also captained a ferry that crossed the Rappahannock River
He was able to purchase real estate that in 1860 was valued at $1,500. On November 2, 1863, Breedlove and his ferry employee unknowingly transported a fugitive enslaved man across the Rappahannock.
Read 7 tweets
Sep 20
This photograph of Silas Chandler (right) and Andrew Chandler (left) has been used by Neo-Confederate groups to perpetuate the Black Confederate myth for decades. The following is a 🧵 about who Silas Chandler was and the truth behind this image.
Silas Chandler was born on January 1, 1837, in Virginia and was enslaved by Roy Chandler. When Roy Chandler received a land grant in Mississippi in 1839 he moved Silas and 38 other enslaved people to a new plantation in Palo Alto, near the town of West Point.
Silas was trained as a carpenter and married an enslaved woman named Lucy Gardner in 1860. He was then forced leave Lucy to join Roy Chandler's son, Andrew, after he enlisted in the Confederate Army in 1861. The photograph is believed to have been taken around that time.
Read 18 tweets
Sep 19
#OTD in 1868, approx. 300 (mostly) Black Republicans embarked on a 25 mile march from Albany, Georgia, to the town of Camilla. They were protesting the expulsion of 33 Black state congressmen (known as the Original 33). Armed white Democrats were waiting for them in Camilla.
The white mob was incensed by Georgia's new state constitution that was ratified in April of 1868. The new constitution granted Black men the right to vote and hold political office.
Many of the marchers were armed as well. When they reached Camilla the local sheriff, Mumford S. Poore, ordered them to put down their guns or face the wrath of the white mob. The marchers refused to back down and continued to the courthouse lawn to hold a political rally.
Read 6 tweets

Did Thread Reader help you today?

Support us! We are indie developers!

This site is made by just two indie developers on a laptop doing marketing, support and development! Read more about the story.

Become a Premium Member ($3/month or $30/year) and get exclusive features!

Become Premium

Don't want to be a Premium member but still want to support us?

Make a small donation by buying us coffee ($5) or help with server cost ($10)

Donate via Paypal

Or Donate anonymously using crypto!


0xfe58350B80634f60Fa6Dc149a72b4DFbc17D341E copy


3ATGMxNzCUFzxpMCHL5sWSt4DVtS8UqXpi copy

Thank you for your support!

Follow Us on Twitter!