0/ @CelestiaOrg's modular #DA layer enables new network designs and makes spinning up rollups easier than ever before

a ๐Ÿงต featuring #RollMint, @dymensionXYZ, @Sagaxyz__, @EvmosOrg and @fuellabs_ exploring the modular future ๐Ÿ”ฎโœจ

(0/34) ๐Ÿ‘‡
1/ I have talked a lot about modularity and how @CelestiaOrg's modular #DA layer marks the beginning of a new era in blockchain architecture

if you want a summary on that, check my thread below ๐Ÿ‘‡

2/ what I want to show you today, is how these novel architectures that @CelestiaOrg enables could look like, how @CelestiaOrg makes blockchain development easier & more accessible than ever before and how the modular building blocks of the future fit together
3/ let's quickly recap what @CeleatiaOrg is

#Celestia is a modular, chain-agnostic data availability layer that provides rollups a highly scalable, decentralized & cheap DA solution with high security guarantees to #rollups
4/ today, rollups use $ETH for consenus, proof verification and posting call data (so that rollup state is reconstructible and accessible)

this comes with scalability limitations and makes operating the rollup expensive (mainly due to L1 gas cost for posting call data)
5/ this will improve in the future as $ETH is set to implement #EIP4844 & subsequently roll out full danksharding

currently, the cost of posting call data is 16 gas per byte & it is expected to be reduced to 3 gas/byte with the implementation of EIP-4488

6/ however, in the modular future we will have more & cheaper #DA (& consensus) alternatives (among other building blocks) in the toolkit to build a blockchain anyhow

this includes @CelestiaOrg but also other DA solutions like @eigenlayer's #EigenDA ๐Ÿ‘‡

7/ but before the promised deep dive into modular designs, let's have a quick look at @CelestiaOrg's #Rollmint

Rollmint is an ABCI (Application Blockchain Interface) implementation for sovereign rollups to deploy on top of #Celestia
8/ it is built by replacing #Tendermint, the Cosmos SDK consensus layer, with a drop-in replacement that communicates directly with @CelestiaOrg's DA layer

#Rollmint spins up a sovereign rollup, which collects txs into blocks and posts them onto #Celestia for consensus and #DA
9/ but wait, wtf are sovereign rollups?

they don't use smart contracts to post blocks. Instead, blocks are included as raw data directly on the @CelestiaOrg chain. The #Celestia consensus & DA layer does not interpret or perform any computation on the blocks
10/ full nodes and light clients on #Celestia download rollup blocks directly from the rollup's peer-to-peer network, similar to how a layer 1 blockchain operates
11/ however, they also verify inclusion of the rollup block data on the #Celestia DA layer through a Merkle proof. This means that the canonical chain is determined by nodes verifying the fork-choice rule & txs of the rollup, rather than being dependent on a on-chain light client
12/ pretty sick

and #Rollmint enables anyone to design and deploy such a sovereign rollup on @CelestiaOrg in minutes
13/ as you definitely know if you've been following me a while, rollups have become a key scaling technology for blockchain networks

however, they often suffer from centralized sequencers & are difficult for devs to deal with
14/ #Rollmint away a lot of the complexity already

and @Sagaxyz__ solves the decentralization problem
15/ how you ask?

the @Sagaxyz__ protocol has the unique ability to orchestrate & scale dedicated chains using interchain security and to provide automated deployment of dedicated blockspace to both L1s and rollups
16/ in other words, @Sagaxyz__ provides a platform to organize mainnet validators into rollup sequencers and punish misbehavior via interchain security

DA as a service + sequencer as a service = rollup as a service

@CelestiaOrg + @Sagaxyz__ = ๐Ÿงฑ


17/ this makes deploying a rollup easier and cheaper than ever before. I'm sure this rollup as a service feature will gain a lot of traction and significantly accelerate the adoption of rollup technology
18/ but what can we build with this?

well, basically anything

one thing that I'm particularly excited about are #rollApps on @dymensionXYZ and @CelestiaOrg
19/ #rollApps are ultra-fast blockchains that have their own gas token and customizable application logic. They are similar to (Cosmos) L1 chains with the subtle difference of being modular
20/ what do I mean by that?

rollApps delegate settlement & consensus to the @dymensionXYZ Hub, while posting data to the @CelestiaOrg DA layer

settlement + DA + execution

@dymensionXYZ + @CelestiaOrg + #rollApp
21/ @dymensionXYZ or the settlement (and in this case consensus) layer is an IBC-enabled blockchain with its own decentralized network of validators and native token $DYM
22/ the #rollApp thesis is compelling for a number of reasons

by creating separate and dedicated execution layers for applications, there is less network congestion

additionally, it enables applications can accrue value to their tokens based on the demand for their product
23/ but the possibilities in the modular toolkit are basically unlimited

another interesting design is the #CEVMOS stack
24/ #CEVMOS (short for Celestia/EVMos/CosmOS) is a modular stack for building EVM-based rollups that uses #Celestia as a DA & consensus layer and centers around an optimized settlement chain for rollups, based on @EvmosOrg
25/ what is @EvmosOrg you ask?

@EvmosOrg is an application-agnostic chain that offers an EVM-compatible development environment. Built on the Cosmos SDK, #Evmos is interoperable with other #Cosmos chains via IBC
26/ #CEVMOS evolves around an @EvmosOrg-based chain that is implemented as a Celestia rollup using #Rollmint instead of #Tendermint

this rollup uses @EvmosOrg as the settlement layer and plugs into @CelestiaOrg as a data availability solution
27/ the rollup at the center of the #CEVMOS stack is called the settlement rollup. #Rollups can then deploy on top of the settlement rollup as a recursive structure (rollup on top of a rollup), with each #rollup having a two-way trust-minimized bridge with the settlement layer
28/ since the rollups deployed on the #CEVMOS stack ultimately share the #DA & consensus layer, they are interoperable with each other through trust-minimized bridges, allowing tokens to be transferred among #rollups and between rollup & settlement layer in a trust-minimized way
29/ If a rollup within the #CEVMOS stack wants to communicate with another non-rollup chain (e.g. via #IBC network) or a #rollup that uses a different settlement layer a trusted bridge would be needed
30/ finally, lets have a quick look at @fuellabs_

#Fuel is a great example of a modular execution layer due to its exceptional versatility
31/ @fuellabs_'s modular execution layer can be operated in different configurations

#Fuel be configured as a monolithic chain, a traditional rollup, a sovereign rollup, use the #CEVMOS settlement rollup or only provide settlement for L3s plugging into @CelestiaOrg's DA layer
32/ if you want to learn more about why I'm so bullish on @fuellabs_, check my thread below ๐Ÿ‘‡

33/ and remember, the possibilities in the #modular future are basically unlimited

we're at a breaking point marking the beginning of a new, #modular era of blockchain architecture (and development) that will reshape how we think of blockchains ๐Ÿ’ญ๐Ÿงฑ

34/ In any case, stay tuned for more on modularity & rollups ๐Ÿงฑโœจ

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More from @expctchaos

Jan 13
0/ I have covered many privacy-focused projects in one way or the other since I've started my Twitter journey ๐Ÿฅทโœจ

a thread of threads featuring $ALEO, $MANTA, $MINA, $AZTEC, $DUSK, $ZEC, $RAIL, $SCRT & $ROSE

(0/13) ๐Ÿงต๐Ÿ‘‡
1/ let's quickly remind ourselves why #privacy matters ๐Ÿ‘‡

2/ so, let's have a look at the projects that enable privacy on public blockchains. Many of them rely on #zk technology, so it might be worth revisiting the below thread ๐Ÿ‘‡

Read 14 tweets
Jan 13
Threฮฑd of threฮฑds ฮฑ.k.ฮฑ. โ‚ฟook of ฮฑlphฮฑ ๐Ÿง™โ€โ™‚๏ธโœจ

- Scaling ฮžthereum on rollups
- Modulฮฑr ฮฑrchitecture (Celestiฮฑ, Eigenlฮฑyer, +)
- Privacy tech (Aleo, Aztec, +)
- zk tech (zkSync, Stฮฑrknet, Scroll, +)
- DotSฮฑmฮฑ / Cosmos
- DeFi ฮฑnฮฑlysis
- AI & Big Dฮฑtฮฑ

Bookmark this (NFA) ๐Ÿ“ˆ ๐Ÿš€
Cryptography - #Privacy-preserving technologies ๐Ÿฅท

Read 56 tweets
Jan 11
0/ @aztecnetwork is a #zk rollup that acts as a privacy shield for ERC20 token transfers & $ETH smart contract interactions ๐Ÿฅทโœจ

zk & #privacy is the next bull narrative & @aztecnetwork enables private txs & #DeFi in the biggest ecosystem

dont sleep anon ๐Ÿ‘€

$AZTEC ๐Ÿงต (0/33)๐Ÿ‘‡ Image
1/ first of all, let's quickly recap the basics. @aztecnetwork is a zero knowledge rollup

similar to optimistic rollups, zk rollups are scaling solution that "rolls up" transactions into batches on an off-chain execution layer rather than executing on L1

2/ from a tech perspective, it is worth mentioning that @aztecnetwork's rollup is secured by a PLONK-based #zk proof system

learn more about #PLONK in the thread linked below ๐Ÿ‘‡

Read 34 tweets
Dec 27, 2022
0/ What are Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge Proofs (NIZKPs)? ๐Ÿง™โ€โ™‚๏ธโœจ

(0/10) ๐Ÿงต๐Ÿ‘‡
1/ First of all, what are zero knowledge proofs (ZKPs) in general?

ZKPs are a #cryptographic technique that allow individuals or entities to prove to another that a statement is true, without revealing any information beyond the validity of the statement.
2/ One variant of ZKPs are non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs (NIZKPs), which don't require interaction between the certifier and verifier.
Read 11 tweets
Dec 27, 2022
0/ What is Homomorphic Encryption (HE)? ๐Ÿง™โ€โ™‚๏ธโœจ

(0/10) ๐Ÿงต๐Ÿ‘‡
1/ HE is a cryptographic tool that allows you to perform certain types of computations directly on the homomorphically encrypted ciphertext, generating the same results as if you performed the operations on the plaintext.
2/ There are two types of HE: partially homomorphic encryption (PHE) & fully homomorphic encryption (FHE). PHE allows for a limited number of operations on the ciphertext (e.g. addition or multiplication), while FHE allows for any computation to be performed on the ciphertext.
Read 10 tweets
Dec 27, 2022
covering a lot of #cryptography and #privacy stuff lately. Time to revisit some of my older privacy-related threads

find below

- the #privacy bull case

- @SecretNetwork and its TEE infrastructure

- @MantaNetwork and zk-tech

- @DuskFoundation and zk-enabled #RegFi


๐Ÿฅท โœจ
1/ the privacy bull case


2/ TEE infrastructure on $SCRT network

Read 6 tweets

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