- 17th Century "Dutch East Indes"
- 1927: Ahkmed Sukarno established the PNI, Indonesian Nationalist Party.
- 1942-47: Japanese conquest and subsequent occupation.
- 17th August 1945: An Independent Indonesian Republic was proclaimed in Jakarta.
Between 1945 and 1949 the Dutch military led an effort to re-establish Imperial control over Indonesia.
This led to international condemnation which forced the Dutch to recognize Indonesian Independence in December, 1949.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe was peripheral to the major world centers of civilization. The powers in the world that mattered were to be found in Asia and the Middle East: Chinese dynasties; Arab Caliphs; Indian Mughals; Persian Safavid's and Ottoman Turks.
These great empires were at the forefront of artistic, intellectual, scientific, and so on achievements. Europe had fallen far behind in terms of science, technology and military power.
The Umayyad Dynasty, 661-750.
"Within 100 years of the Prophets death, Arab forces had reached the Indian subcontinent in the east, and in the west they had occupied Spain and crossed the Pyrenees into France" (Cleveland).
Came about due to cultural restraints, a moral reaction to the 17th Century wars of religion. States tended to have more limited tax and recruitment bases. Constitutional limits existed on the size of armies and how they could be...
deployed. Small yet professional armies and the use of mercenaries were commonplace.
Limited warfare whereby governments encouraged military commanders not to risk large, expensive armies.
1784 Kettle War - Dutch Republic vs Habsburg Monarchy.
The State and it's Sinews of War: Men, Money and Munitions.
Changes arose due to rapid population growth across continental Europe. Larger armies were becoming the new 'norm' with Napoleon boasting of having an "income of 200,000 men a year."
#Reserves Continuous Attitude #SurveyResults 2019 #ReCas. This survey of volunteer reserves covers satisfaction with various aspects of being a reservist.
#Volunteer reservists are more likely to be satisfied
with life in their Service, feel a greater sense of
pride, and recommend joining to others compared
with trained #Regulars. Satisfaction with Service
life, in general, has increased for both #Reserves
and #Regulars since 2018.
Overall, there have been increases in the per cent
positive responses compared to 2015 in several
areas, such as:
#FDR promoted the idea that the people of the world, in all nations, shared entitlement to four freedoms: that of the freedom of speech and expression, the freedom of worship, the freedom from want and the freedom from fear.
#FDR is arguably one of the most 'successful' #US Presidents. Some would argue that on the basis of his numerous social policies such as 'the New Deal'. Others, however, would argue that his role during the second world war was more prevalent to his success & everlasting legacy.