JUST IN [Thread] 1. @SAHPRA1 is reviewing 6 #COVID19 #vaccine applications for emergency use authorisation (called Section 21 approval), including new applications for #Sputnik Lite (1 shot of the 2-shot #Sputnik V jab) and #Novavax.
2. Four of the 6 #COVID19 #vaccine applications are for 2 of the same jabs. So different companies applied 4 approval 4 the same vaccines:
1. #Sputnik (Dr Reddy's Labs, Lamar International)
2. #Sinopharm (MC Pharma, Lamar International; Lamar also applied for Sputnik Lite)
3. On 18 Oct @SAHPRA1 rejected Lamar International's application 4 #Sputnik because of concerns that it might increase HIV negative people's risk of #HIV infection. The application remains open. Lamar needs to submit data to prove the jab is safe.

4. Local companies need to submit applications to @SAHPRA1, so an international manufacturer needs to find a local company to partner with. The #Novavax application has been submitted by @CiplaRSA.
5. Why do different companies submit applications for the same jab? It often happens, also with non-COVID meds:
1. It could relate to market share and access issues (market domination)
2. The products might be manufactured at different sites
6. In the case of the #Sputnik and #Sinopharm applications the products are made by the same sites/developers. But @SAHPRA1 has to review the data submitted by each applicant separately, to make sure it complies with its safety, efficacy and quality standards.
7. So it doesn't mean if one company's application for, say, #Sinopharm, is approved, that the other company will automatically also get approval. Companies risk management plans may, for instance, differ.
8. What's the timeline for the applications? All of the applications have different timelines. Something that hugely influence how long it takes to approve a vaccine is how long a company takes to submit additional data that @SAHPRA1 asks for.
9. Which #COVID19 jabs have already been approved?
1. #Pfizer/BioNTech called “Comirnaty”
2. Janssen (#JnJ) Covid-19 vaccine 3. Sinovac’s called “Coronavac” (submitted by and Curanto Pharma) — this jab has conditional approval
10. Find @SAHPRA1's press release here: sahpra.org.za/news-and-updat…

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More from @miamalan

14 Jan
[Thread] 1. What's happening with SA #Omicron hospital + death data?

Waasila Jassat, @nicd_sa:
"Decoupling" between cases, hospitalisations/deaths = continue.

Black: new #COVID19 cases
Grey: hospitalisations
Red: deaths

Cases higher than Wave 1-3, admissions/deaths = lower
2. #Omicron started in Gauteng + spread 2 other provinces within a week. With previous waves the spread 2 other parts of the country took much longer. So with #Omicron the peaks of provinces' hospitalisations/deaths = much closer to each other.
3. #Omicron hospital admissions in SA peaked at about 60% of the #Delta wave and deaths at about 14-15%
Read 11 tweets
14 Jan
[Thread] 1. The LATEST on #Omicron in SA

@Dr_Groome of @nicd_sa:
1. Almost 99% of all new #COVID19 cases in SA now = #Omicron (Omicron = red on table, see Nov/Dec)
2. Extremely low proportions of other variants are currently detected through sequencing
2. @Dr_Groome:
1. SA reached its #Omicron peak on 15 Dec (22,588 new #COVID19 cases on that day)
2. Reported cases = only +/- 10% of the actual cases
3. There's been a small increase in new cases over Xmas, but we have seen persistent decreases in terms of 7 day moving averages
3. @Dr_Groome:
1. Previous waves were longer and waves started and ended a few weeks apart in different provinces. With #Omicron the wave is much steeper and provinces followed each other much quicker
2. Gauteng (where SA's Omicron wave started) has exited its 4th (Omicron) wave
Read 10 tweets
14 Jan
[Thread] 1. From TONIGHT (Fri), 8pm, adult #COVID19 hospitalisation data in SA will be available on @HealthZA's dashboard.

Milani Wolmarans, @HealthZA, #EVDS:
The data will be categorised into 3 types of patients:
1. Fully vaccinated
2. Partially vaccinated
3. Unvaccinated
2. What's happening so far?
Of 7,826 adults in hospital because of #COVID19:
- 5,731 (73%) = unvaccinated
- 321 (4%) = partially vaccinated (this = lower than fully vaccinated as there are far fewer partially than fully vaxxed people in total)
- 1,774 (22.6%) = fully vaxxed
3. What % of adults (18+) have been fully + partially vaccinated?

1. Fully vaccinated: 40.14% (if 2020 Stats SA population estimates = used)
2. Partially vaccinated (1 shot of #Pfizer only): 7.7% (12,367,221 [1st shots] - 9,289,091 [2nd shots] = 3,078,130 [1st shot only])
Read 10 tweets
14 Jan
[Thread] #JoePhaahla:
1. WC currently has the highest nr of new #COVID19 cases, followed by KZN
2. Gauteng has officially excited its 4th (#Omicron) wave
3. All other 8 provinces have reached their Omicron peaks and new cases on a decline
2. #JoePhaahla:
1. Although there is a decline in new #COVID19 cases in all provinces, the decline is slower than what the increase
2. That means the Omicron wave is declining at a slower pace than what it had increased
3. #JoePhaahla:
1. There has been a 5% reduction in reported deaths in SA over the past 7 days
2. There has been a 27% decline in new #COVID19 cases over the past 7 days
Read 4 tweets
10 Jan
JUST IN [Thread] 1. Early findings from 2 SA studies suggest #Omicron has a much higher rate of asymptomatic "carriage" (#COVID19 without symptoms) than previous variants and this is likely an important reason why the variant spreads so fast.
Preprint: bit.ly/3q8NykS
2. Which studies are findings based on?
1. Ubuntu: A sub-Saharan #Africa study that measures the effectiveness of #Moderna's #COVID19 jab in #HIV+ people (all initial sites in SA)
2. A sub-study of #Sisonke, conducted among SA #HealthWorkers, that measures #JnJ's effectiveness
3. Neither of the studies = designed 2 look @ asymptomatic infections specifically, rather 2 measure breakthrough infections, immunogenicity + effectiveness of jabs in HIV+ and other groups, but they do give useful info on how #Omicron's spread differs from other variants.
Read 9 tweets
8 Jan
[Thread] 1. When will SA's #Omicron wave end?

1. If cases continue 2 decline @ the current rate, the wave will end in +/- 10-11 days
2. How will we know it's the end?
@nicd_sa uses 30 cases/100,000 in the past 7 days for the beginning/end of a wave
2. If the #Omicron wave does end in +/-10-11 days, it will have been just over half the length of previous waves:
1. Wave 1, 2, 3: About 75 days long
2. Wave 4 (Omicron) likely to be 40-50 days long
3. Can SA expect a next #COVID19 wave?
1. Given the consistent 3 month gap we get in SA between waves, the 5th wave can be expected, if it is going to occur, in May this year
2. Of course, a new variant may throw this estimation out the window
Read 20 tweets

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