To protect the borders in #Kanniyakumari District, Travancore kindgom under guidance of Capt. Eustachius De Lannoy built South Travancore lines - a series of fortifications in ~1740s between the ocean & mountains & are now in ruins after being overrun by Company troops in 1809
Except Vattakottai fort, all the other sections of the lines are present as bunds or demolished and now used as roads. Some ruins of the bastions and redoubts are still visible in some places.

Google Earth/Maxar Rendition of Vattakottai fort overlooking the sea.
#Tamil version map of the same
The palaces, forts, fort walls in the Kanniyakumari district (other than Padmanabapuram and Vattakottai) are in dire need of maintenance @TThenarasu. A circuit tour can also be created..

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More from @rajbhagatt

Jan 13
India - State of #forest report from Forest Survey is out. If you get news articles (how forest covr increased/decreased), read it with caution. Will write detailed comments later, but some small fun for now:

In ch-13 maps, they have given Shaksgam away! Illegal to publish..
They had some city level maps of forests.. And their statistics depended on boundary files and the file for Mumbai is riddled with gaps between subdivisions. There are white patches in between because someone didnt digitize it properly and these errors creep into stats
For the other major cities, the boundaries used were municipal corporation boundaries but for Bengaluru alone they have used planning area boundary (BDA has a larger area than BBMP and covers some forest patches). Comparison shown below and this would affect numbers
Read 9 tweets
Jan 7
#Thread of maps on Palayamkottai, now part of #Tirunelveli

As a city,Palayamkottai has a recorded history for more than a thousand years. It reached its zenith during the British era & was called as "Oxford of South India"

My first thread in 2022 is a tribute to #ThoPa
Palaymkottai was located in KeelKalaKootram, a revenue division in the east side of Porunai river (now called Thamirabarani). The fort itself was positioned to protect the lush farmlands & was at the intersection of the farmlands & pastures which designed its socio-cultural setup
Before the 1700s, the city was largely confined within the fort walls. But it had began expanding outside afterwards. The fort was a largely rectangular shaped structure with a number of bastions and four gates in four directions.
Read 12 tweets
Dec 27, 2021
Time for another short story

A small river/stream existed near Angul #Odisha. The land around it was allotted to JSPL for development...
The company thought the course of the river was too disturbing and decided to change the course of the river.
However there were other smaller streams that were draining into it (obviously) & since the new course didnt account it, they started stagnating (marked in white circle)
No matter how much they filled the land, it continued stagnating and creating issues for authorities and farmers nearby.
Read 5 tweets
Dec 5, 2021
Short thread of satellite images
Story of a navigational canal that was built with ~12 crore rupees tax payer money in #Ganga riverbed in #Varanasi Uttar Pradesh.

h/t @Indian_Rivers

Before the construction of the canal, this was the river Ganga
In March 2021, the construction started in the river bed where we can see the machines in action. The canal was supposed to be built parallel to the main river but within the bed.

By May, the construction had progressed and we can see the canal taking a shape (highlighted in white)

Read 9 tweets
Nov 7, 2021
Many parts of #Chennai have been inundated after heavy rains (22 cm) last night. The city like all other in India faces a wide range of issues and it is UNLIKELY to solve any of the urban flooding related problems that it faces within the next 10 years.
Here's why
1/n Image
Chennai Metropolitan region (in particular the city corporation) is relatively flat terrain and is very close to sea level. The agricultural activity in the region had prompted construction of thousands of lakes which were shallow and large in area Image
Over the years, the city expanded and in many places (like South Chennai marked here) expanded in low lying areas (and wetlands) which are extremely close to sea level and water would tend to stagnate
Map shows builtup expansion Image
Read 14 tweets
Oct 24, 2021
Thread #Haldwani case:
After extreme rainfall in #Uttarakhand, a bridge failed across Gaula river near Haldwani

Rain wasn't sole cause, it just brought d collapse a bit earlier

Himalayan rivers exit mountains & enter plains with great intensity & it is a critical zone
It is in this critical section is Haldwani where the Gaula river exits the himalayas and enters plains. Rivers bring huge amount of sediments with them to settle as well as they have high intensity flows during monsoon to erode

Visual shows the location of the bridge that failed
Failure of a bridge is nothing new in the region. The previous bridge across the Gaula river (shown with old satellite image below) had collapsed in 2008 after floods
Read 17 tweets

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