But this is problematic.
As this Caliphate was only nominally Arab
Most of its great cultural contributions stemmed from Persian thinkers
The leader of the Abbasid revolution against Umayyads circa 750CE was one Abu Muslim, a Persian slave!
Now the Barmikid family was not Arab.
The very word Barmiki is an Arabization of the Sanskrit word Pramukha - administrators at the Buddhist monastery of Nava VihAra at Balkh
But in Baghdad - which itself is a Persian word.
But Baghdad in fact was the site of the old Sassanid Persian capital Ctesiphon - a city that was destroyed by the Arabs when the Sassanid empire fell in mid 7th cen
But much of this stemmed from Eastern influences - from Persia and also India
But hang on
Al Khwarizmi - the most famous name of the era (from whom we get our word "algorithm") was Persian. Not Arab
But his own works on arithmetic and algebra, including his work on decimal numbers, were clearly inspired by Indian mathematics.
Particularly inspired by the great Brahmagupta of the 7th century, a native of modern Rajasthan, India
The work of Khwarizmi itself was heavily influenced by Indian works two centuries before him
Yet the mathematics he systematized is dubbed Arab or worse Islamic mathematics. We hear of Arabic numerals
Though these numerals were Hindu
Omar Khayyam the poet and mathematician - Persian
Ibn Sina the physician - Persian
Al Farabi the philosopher - Persian
Al Biruni the polymath - Persian / Uzbek
"The Persians ruled for a thousand years and did not need us Arabs even for a day. We have been ruling them for one or two centuries and cannot do without them for an hour!"
But there was nothing Arab about it. And nothing distinctly Islamic about it either
Which is why for most Muslims, the Abbasid period isn't a Golden Age.
But rather it is the Rashidun period soon after the Prophet (early-mid 7th century) that is remembered fondly
The insiders aren't particularly proud of it. They know how much of it owes to Persia / India
Hey...all the "Persian" thinkers you mentioned nevertheless wrote in Arabic. Not Persian.
Sure..but they were still not Arabs. The choice of language is often dictated by political patronage and climate
Al Biruni in fact was patronized by a Turkic monarch to the east - Ghazni
The Abbasid period is often credited with reviving interest in the Classics. In Plato, Aristotle and Hellenic culture
But much of the translations from Greek to Persian were undertaken by Nestorian Christians in Persia
Another important Christian translator of the period was Hunayn ibn Ishaq, himself a Nestorian Christian