#Algeria: Must go hand in hand with PAROS discussions

Need transparency and more ambitious confidence building measures. Particular responsibility of states with advanced capabilities to prevent PAROS.
#Algeria: Promote full access to technology through cooperation and tech assistance and capacity building in developing countries

Need to strengthen legal regime in outer space for a common future.
#NewZealand: Should not be focused exclusively on kinetic threats. Non-kinetic including #cyber pose significant threats and possible irreversible loss and damage to infrastructure on earth
#NewZealand: Concerns about #ASAT capabilities. Instability, spillover of conflict, and debris risk. NZ sees destructive DA ASAT tests as irresponsible and welcomes U.S. commitment.
#NewZealand cont: In July NZ joined the U.S. #ASAT declaration. Does not have the capability and not looking to develop it . See this as pragmatic first step.
#Cuba: Best CBM would be that none will be first to place weapons in outer space

International cooperation is best way to ensure that space is used for peaceful uses.
#Cuba: Transfer of tech and assistance are essential pillars of peaceful use and reject coercive measures that prevent peaceful uses of outer space

Reject any use of weapons in space and any military use of space.
#India: "Use of space for welfare and not for warfare."

India has not resorted to an arms race in outer space
#India: Prefer legally binding instrument because stronger guarantee of compliance with obligations. But also open to developing non binding outcomes including rules, norms, and TCBMs that can serve as foundation for binding agreements
#India: See merit in behavioural approach since space objects are inherently dual-use and much depends on use.
#India: Certain behaviours can be misinterpreted as irresponsible even if intent is peaceful and no intent to cause damage.

Need to discuss matter of OBJECTIVITY and how to avoid ambiguity. Concerns about WHO will make assessments, and verification. Possible politicization.
#India emphasizes non-discrimination, equity, verification.
#Indonesia emphasizes #PAROS and non-weaponization, peaceful use.

Rules norms and principles of responsible behaviour and TCBMs only effective is also contribution to legal instrument on PAROS to reinforce the outer space regime.
#Ireland: Concerned development and proliferation ASAT weapons, which generate debris. Testing is dangerous and destabilizing and impacts confidence. Welcomes commitment by some states not to conduct destructive, direct ascent ASAT technologies and hopes first step to legal rule.
#Ireland: Cyber attacks, jamming, and other electromagnetic/ direct energy weapons that can affect satellites and impair services for uses.

Considered such behaviour to be irresponsible. Harms people and goods. Interference should be considered irresponsible.
#Ireland: Destruction of space objects = irresponsible.
Use of space object to destroy objects also irresponsible.

Supports increased cooperation on SSA.
#Ireland: Regards omission of info as irresponsible given dual-use nature of space objects such as RPO that affect another state, without consent. Omission to inform, notify, communicate is irresponsible. Uncoordinated release of objects such as substats without sufficient notice
#Ireland supports a #gender perspective
#SaudiArabia places strong emphasis on non-weaponization
#ICRC: emphasizes civilian protection.

Interrupted by point of order by #Russia who questions status of ICRC to make a formal statement.

The Chair notes that participation of ICRC accepted as a standing observer per #SpaceThreatsOEWG resolution.
In spirit of consensus, the Chair suggests that ICRC deliver statement in informal mode.
#ICRC: Enjoys standing invitation to participate as observe at UNGA. This does not establish precedent.

Threats include: electronic, cyber, directed energy, and kinetic (orbital and ground-based). If used as part of armed conflict, can harm civilians on earth
#ICRC: Space is essential part of critical civilian infrastructure including humanitarian responses and activities conducted by the ICRC and others.

Check written statement for fascinating list of many, many ways in which space supports daily civilian life.
#ICRC: Operations do not occur in a legal vacuum. Constrained by international law including #IHL. This does not encourage or legitimize such activities. Urge states to consider risk of humanitarian consequences when planning activities.
#ICRC: If new laws or norms are to be developed they must build on and strengthen the existing legal framework including #IHL.
Discussion shifts to consideration of earth-to-space threats to space systems.
#UnitedStates: Destructive testing of earth to space #ASAT missiles is one of the most pressing threats facing humans and spacecraft in orbit.
#UnitedStates: Access to and use of space is vital interest of all states. But over last 2 decades we have seen DA ASAT tests. One of note 1,785 pieces of trackable debris. Poses a threat to “envoys of mankind.”
#UnitedStates: VP Harris has announced that U.S. intends to submit resolution #UNGA #FirstCommittee first committee calling on all countries to commit not to conduct destructive DA ASAT tests.
#UnitedStates: draft resolution calls for voluntary commitment. Meets criteria for #TCBMs re 2013 GGE
- Be clear, practical and proven
- Effectively confirmed
- Reduce or eliminate causes of mistrust and miscalculation.
#UnitedStates will hold consultations on the draft resolution calling for voluntary commitments to refrain from destructive testing of DA #ASAT missiles.
#Turkey: call attention to threats posed by continued developing and testing of destructive #ASAT capabilities.

Believes that the paper provided by #Germany and #Philippines is useful for the OEWG discussion.
#Poland calls attention to what it describes as malicious #cyber attack against a satellite system operating in Ukraine, which it claims was attributed to Russia.

#Russia calls point of order, re beyond scope of mandated discussion.
#Poland Urges all states to refrain from irresponsible behaviour of destructive activities that create debris.

Appreciates U.S. commitment to refrain from destructive DA #ASAT tests
#Germany: -One of biggest challenges is destructive testing of DA #ASAT missiles against ones own objects in orbit.
Exposes astronauts and satellites of all nations to unacceptable and unavoidable risks. Demonstrated by Russia in 2021.
#Germany commends. U.S for commitment not to conduct such tests and all those joining. Also welcomes statement by U.S. today.
#Germany commits not to conduct destructive DA #ASAT missile testing and invites all states to follow suit and creation of a universal norm.
#UK: Welcome commitment by U.S. and others to not destructively test DA #ASAT missiles. A good example of responsible behaviour. A real problem. Implementable and verifiable. Reduces mistrust. A priority.
#UK draws attention to risks of directed energy, which can be both harmful and peaceful.

Presently most likely use against space objects = dazzling or blinding ISR satellites. Causes risks. May cause escalating responses/miscalculation.
#UK Future of directed energy weapons = possibly to attack satellites or for ABM. Will be need for states to talk about uses and tests.

Electronic warfare: has affected civilian operations. Risks of miscalculation/miscommunication.
#Russia argues #COPUOS has mandate to discuss broad range of issues under this subject.
#Russia Convinced discussion of irresponsible behaviour needs to be done strictly in line with PAROS. Otherwise, discussion might turn aside from efforts to ensure achievement of this key aim facing the international community.
#Russia: need to focus on weapons and use of force.

Concept of MILITARY THREAT: interstate relations with possibility of outbreak of military conflict between opposing side, high level of readiness to use military/armed force. Concept should be enshrined by the OEWG.
#Russia: Armed forces of Russia have been set the task of national defence to prevent an air based or space based attack, ensure readiness to repel strikes, deployment and maintenance of orbital space equipment ensuring armed forces activities, and space-based defence mechanisms
#Russia: Russian military does not have any confrontation INTENT and in strict compliance with international law including OST.
#Russia: Concept of responsible behaviour needs more attention. OST gives us THE criteria, namely use of space for peaceful purposes. An irresponsible action would be any that does not have a peaceful intent.
#Russia arguing that obligations in draft PPWT are in fact behavioural, such as development, testing deployment of weapons in space or threat/use of force against objects in space (this is a best effort at interpretation of the comment).

Argues it is comprehensive not selective
#Russia argues also need to pursue ban on anti-ballistic missile weapons.

More examples of irresponsible behaviour that should be banned are detailed in the paper: documents.unoda.org/wp-content/upl…
Right of reply by #Russia in response to comments about it's space activities, which it claims are strictly in compliance with the OST, not aimed at any state, and strictly defensive.
END OF DAY. End of 🧵

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More from @ploughshares_ca

Sep 15
Day 4, Session 2 of the #SpaceThreatsOEWG.

Exchange of views by Member States: 🧵 Image
Live video feed here: media.un.org/en/asset/k1g/k…
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Jun 1, 2021
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Notably, no Canadian rifles appear to have been exported to Saudi Arabia in 2020, a departure from recent years.
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