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Here's a brief timeline on the History of Kashmir.
All errors and omissions are regretted.
1. 3116–20 BC: Gonanda I, cousin of Jarasandha, king of Magadh rules over Kashmir.
His reign lasts for 17 years and is assassinated by Balabhadra, the brother of Krishna.
2. 3103 BC: Damodara Dynasty, consisting of Damodara I, his wife, Yashovanti and Son Damodara II rule over Kashmir for 80 years.
Damodara I is killed by Krishna. Damodara II is assassinated by Parikshit, grandson of Arjuna of Mahabharat fame and the ruler of Hastinapur
Damodara II’s Prime Minister Harnadeva, a relative of Parikshit, takes over as the King of Kashmir.
3. 3083 BC: King Harnadeva starts the Pandava dynasty which rules over Kashmir for the next 1331 years.
4. 1752 BC: A reign of 8 successive and mostly unrelated rulers over Kashmir, which lasts for a total of 305 years.
The Kings of Kashmir during this time are, Luv, Kush, Khagendra, Surendra, Godhara, Suvarna, Janaka,
and finally Sachinara, who was Shakuni’s great great grandson.
5. 1448 BC: Asoka or Dharmasoka of the Gonanda Dynasty takes over. He rules over Kashmir for 48 years.
Asoka embraced d religion of Buddhism and builds the grand city of Srinagar with ninety-six lakhs of houses, around the present day Dal Lake
The Gonanda dynasty rules till 272 BC, for a total of 1176 years and has a total of 35 kings.
The last Gonanda king is Andha Yudhistira, who’s famous for having very small eyes.
6. 0500 BC: Kashmir was ruled by the monarchy of excellent horsemen, the Kambojas.
Their capital was Rajapura, which later became Rajouri. They went on to create the Kamboja-Pala dynasty of Bengal in 10th & 11th century.
7. 0376 BC: The Shankaracharya temple of Srinagar is constructed by Gonanda King, Gopaditya.
8. 0326 BC: King Abhisara, the sovereign ruler of Poonch, Rajauri and Nowshera comes in contact of Alexander during these times
9. 0304 BC: Kashmir becomes a part of the Mauryan Empire under the Gonanda Kings, who accept the sovereignty of Ashoka.
Buddhism is introduced into the valley in a big way during this period. He is clearly a Junior sovereign to the Gonanda Kings.
10. 0272 BC: The Pratapaditya Dynasty takes over Kashmir. Rules till 80 BC, or 192 years.
The Dynasty starts with King Pratapaditya, who is a relative of King Vikramaditya of Ujjain and ends with King Sandhimati.
11. 0080 BC: Over the next 207 years, Kashmir is ruled by 10 Kings, starting from Meghavahana and ending with Lakshmana in 127–131 AD.
12. 0001 AD: Kashmir has by now become one of the most important centres of Hinduism & Buddhism with countless stupas, mathas & temples
13. 0127 AD: Kashmir is conquered by Kanishka I, and becomes a part of the Kushan Dynasty empire.
A staunch Buddhist, Kanishka holds the 4th Buddhist council of his empire in Kashmir.
It was during this very council, that Buddhism was divided into two sects, the Hinayana and the Mahayana.
14. 0400 AD: Around this time, Kashmiri Buddhist Missionaries started spreading Buddhism in Tibet and China.
There was a regular stream of Tibetan and Chinese pilgrims during this time, visiting Kashmir.
Buddhist Monk Kumārajīva, who influenced the Chinese emperor Yao Xing, during this period,
and translated the Lotus Sutra and the Diamond Sutra among others, was also of Kashmiri Origin.
15. 0520 AD: Kashmir is ruled by Mihirakula, a central asian conqueror for a short period, before getting defeated by Yashodharman in Malwa.
0570 AD: Muḥammad ibn `Abdullāh, Prophet of Islam (PBUH) is born in Mecca in present day Saudi Arabia
16. 0625 AD: The Karkota Empire of Kashmir was established by King Durlabhvardhana.
The Empire ruled for 260 yrs & captured part of Central Asia, Afghanistan & Punjab - first Kashmiri Kingdom 2 hve influence beyond Himalayas
They had their capital in modern day Paraspore (Parihaspur) in Kashmir and were the financiers of the spectacular Martanda Surya Temple.
17. 0724 AD: Lalitaditya Muktapida, the most powerful Kashmiri sovereign ever, started his 36 year long and prosperous reign.
His was a time, when most of modern day UP, Uttaranchal and Bihar, paid taxes to a Kashmiri King.
18. 0875 AD: The author of Shiva Sutra, Vasugupta was born. He went on to become one of the most influential Indian poets of Sanskrit.
His book, laid the foundation of the monistic Shaiva system called Kashmir Shaivism.
19. 0850 AD: Shaivism Tradition or Trika School of Sanatana Dharma is born in Kashmir around this time, thanks to the teachings of Vasugupta
20. 0950 AD: Abhinavagupta was born in Kashmir. He ws a famous philosopher, aesthetician, musician, poet, dramatist & logician f Trika&Kaula
who renewed the Teachings of Vasugupta, his teachings influenced the Shaivism in Southern India.
Kashmir Shaivism was adopted by the common masses of Kashmir during this period.
21. 0997 AD: Kashmir was ruled by Queen Didda - who had her maternal ancestry in the Hindu Shahi of Kabul, Afghanistan.
She was the daughter of Simharāja, a Lohara king. She married to the then king of Kashmir, Kshemgupta, & ruled after the death of the King
22. 1003 AD: Kashmir came into the hands of the Lohara Dynasty, which ruled over Kashmir for 317 years.
The capital of the dynasty was in Loharkot Fort, which was unsuccessfully attacked twice by the Mahmood of Ghaznawi.
23. 1310 AD: Estimated year when sufi mystic, Hazrat Bulbul Shah of Iran entered Kashmir along with a few of his disciples.
He had an impressive charisma and knowledge and was respected by Kashmiris of all faiths. He built a monastery in Kashmir.
24. 1313 AD: Shah Mir, an Irani Sunni Muslim refugee came to the Kashmir Valley from Swat, along with his family.
He was 1 of the first muslims to set foot in the valley. He was tactful, able & was later appointed as a minister by King Suhadev of Kashmir
Shah Mir would go on to start the first muslim dynasty, that ruled over Kashmir for 20 generations and 222 years.
25. 1320 AD: A Ladakhi Buddhist Prince, Rinchen took d throne of Kashmir & Shaivite Yogini Poet, Lalleshwari or Lal Aarifa was born.
She became the primary source of influence for Nund Rishi, Sheikh Noor-ud-din Wali - The Patron Saint of Kashmir.
Rinchen unsuccessfully revolted against his uncle, the Sovereign of Ladakh, and had to flee to Kashmir.
He was made a minister in the court of Raja Suhadeva, which also had Shah Mir, as a minister.
Raja Suhadeva was later defeated by d Mongols & his Commander-in-Chief, Ramchandra took over d reigns making Rinchen his chief administrator
Rinchen assassinated Ramchandra & became the king himself. Rinchen married Ramchandra’s widowed daughter, & made Shah Mir his chief advisor
Rinchen wanted to convert to Hinduism, but was denied. He later converted to Islam along with 10,000 of his men (first major conversion)
on d direction of Irani sufi mystic, Hazrat Bulbul Shah, also known as Bulbul-e-Kashmir. Rinchen adopted the title of Sultan Sadruddin Shah
He built the first ever Mosque in Kashmir, on the ruins of a Buddhist temple (the Bud Masjid).
26. 1323 AD: Richen or Sultan Sadruddin Shah, succumbed to injuries during an attack by rebels.
Kota Rani, decided to marry, Udayanadeva, brother of Suhadeva. Though Udayanadeva became King, it was Kota Rani who actually wielded power.
She was known to be intelligent, shrewd, brave and a real badass.
She built a canal to save Srinagar from frequent flooding, which is still functional and still bears her name - Kute Kol.
During her (proxy) reign, Kashmir was attacked by a Mongol Army led by Achalla.
While the attack made King Udayanadeva flee to Tibet, Kota Rani faced attackers head on & killed Achalla making the other attackers run away
She was finally dethroned, by her trusted lieutenant Shah Mir who organised an internal uprising against her.
When she found herself helpless with Shah Mir offering a proposal of marriage, she stabbed herself to death
in modern day Sambhal in Kashmir, clearing the path of the Shah Mir Dynasty which ruled Kashmir for 222 years.
27. 1334 AD: Approximate year, when sufi mystic, Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani or Shah Hamdan entered Kashmir.
Born in modern day Iran, he is attributed to have played a major role in the spread of Islam in Kashmir.
He was one of the major influencers of Shaivite Mystic Lal Ded or Lalleshwari, who was just 6 years younger to him.
28. 1339 AD: Shah Mir, a descendant of persian immigrants of the Swat valley, and the Chief Advisor to the King Richen (Sadruddin Shah)
took over the throne after the king succumbed 2 his injuries while fighting Mongols
He tried marrying Kota Rani, but she committed a suicide
Shah Mir thus became the first muslim ruler of Kashmir, starting the Shah Mir Dynasty. He ruled for 3 years and 5 months.
29. 1377 AD: Nund Rishi or Sheikh Noor ud-Din Wali, the founder of Rishi Order of Kashmiri sufi tradition was born in present day Kulgam
According to the legend, on the 3rd day of his birth, Yogini Lalleshwari or Lal Ded, had suckled him milk, opening his fast since birth.
He is known as the father of Kashmiriyat. He preached communal harmony, non-violence, vegetarianism and tolerance to the people
30. 1389 AD: Sikandar Shah Mir better known as Sikandar Butshikan became the 6th Sultan of Kashmir.
His reign of 24 years saw a blood soaked effort to convert the majority population of Kashmir, from Hinduism to Islam.
By his order, many old Hindu and Buddhist temples were desecrated and burnt, Hindus were prohibited from praying, putting a tilak,
sounding a temple bell, blowing of conch shell, celebrating festivals and even cremating their dead.
A heavy Jizya tax was imposed on non muslims and they were treated as second class citizens.
A large number of Hindus were forcibly converted during his reign. Many were forced to leave their homes and flee.
The grand Martand Surya Temple was desecrated on his orders.
By the end of his rule - Kashmir became a Muslim Majority state for the first time in History.
31. 1418 AD: The Bud Shah or Zain-ul-Abidin started his reign as the 8th Sultan of the Shah Mir Dynasty in Kashmir.
Though he was a muslim ruler, he abolished the Jizya tax on the Hindu Majority of Kashmir, and banned cow slaughter.
He was a scholar of Persian, Tibetan and Sanskrit, and ordered the translation of Mahabharata into Persian for the first time.
He tried to call the Kashmiri Hindus back to the valley. He also invited artists and craftsmen from modern day Iran to train the locals
in the art of Carpet Making, and Wood Carving among other things.
31. 1557 AD: Sultan Habib Shah, the 20th and final Sultan of the Shah Mir Dynasty, took over the throne.
32. 1586 AD: Mughal rule started in Kashmir with Akbar’s conquest of the Kashmir Valley.
The Mughals were in love with Kashmir. They built many gardens and monuments across the valley.
33. 1658 AD: Aurangzeb came to power and took special interest in Kashmir. The Jizya Tax, Persecution of Hindus & Mass conversions restarted
This became, what was later known as the 2nd Exodus of Kashmiri Hindus from the Valley. Kashmiri Pandits go to Guru Teg Bahadur for help.
We all know about the Aurangzeb and Guru Teg Bahadur, so leaving it for now. In case you don't will write a thread later.
Wrong numbering.. bah 😑
35. 1698 AD: Aurangzeb found out about a rich Kashmiri trader by the name Nur-ud-Din Eshai, who had bought a relic (a strand of hair)
belonging to prophet Muhammad from an ancestor, living in Bijapur in Hyderabad State.
He ordered the seizing of the relic - which was sent to Ajmer Dargah, while Nur-ud-Din Eshai, was sent to the prison.
By the time he came around to a realisation, that he had made a mistake, Noor-ud-Din had died in the prison.
36. 1700 AD: A repentant Aurangzeb arranged for the Body of Nur-ud-Din Eshai to be sent to Srinagar along with the relic of Prophet Mohammad
Nur-Ud-Din’s daughter, Inayat Begam, became first custodian of the relic, which was kept in a large shrine on the banks of the Dal Lake
The Shrine came to be known as Hazratbal.
Bonus : This shrine in 1963–67, saw the first ever Anti India demonstration in Kashmir. More details, later in the timeline.
37. 1753 AD: Afghan Durranis started their rule over Kashmir. Abdul Khan Isk Aquasi, general in Ahmed Shah Abdali’s army conquered Kashmir.
This started the 3rd round of oppression against the Hindus in Kashmir, where, this time, many were turned into slaves by the Afghan rulers.
The Durrani’s rule in Kashmir lasted for 69 years when they were routed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
38. 1792 AD: Gulab Singh Dogra, an awesome fighter and the founder of the Dogra Dynasty was born.
39. 1819 AD: Maharaja Ranjit Singh started his rule over Kashmir. The Sikhs removed the oppressive Jizya Tax.
Imposed death sentence for cow slaughter.
Closed down the Jama Masjid in Srinagar and banned the Azaan in all mosques.
40. 1820 AD: Maharaja Ranjit Singh gave away the fief of Jammu to Kishore Singh Dogra, father of 28 years old Gulab Singh Dogra
in appreciation of Gulab’s fighting skills.
41. 1820 AD: Adding further to the family jewels, Gulab Singh Dogra captured Rajouri and Kishtwar into his fief as well.
Gulab Singh also helped capture Ladakh and Baltistan for the Lahore Gaddi.
42. 1832 AD: Kashmir faced the first recorded famine in its history. The Taxed were halved, and loans were offered to farmers.
Kashmir soon bounced back, becoming the 2nd largest source of revenues for the Lahore Gaddi.
43. 1839 AD: Maharaja Ranjit Singh died and the Lahore Gaddi became weaker.
44. 1843 AD: One of the most famous Kashmiri Sufi Poets of the Qadiriyya silsila, Shams Faqir was born.
45. 1845 AD: The First Anglo Sikh War Started - Let’s just say, the Dogras, abstained from giving their 100% this time.
46. 1846 AD: Britishers defeated the Sikhs, demanded a repatriation of Rs. 1.5 Crores from the Sikh rulers,
with an additional sum of Rs 60 Lakhs payable immediately, as reparations for the cost of the war.
The Lahore Gaddi, paid Rs. 50 Lakhs in cash and ceded the territories of Hazara and Kashmir for a sum of 1 crore.
The British further sold Kashmir to Gulab Singh Dogra, the Raja of Jammu, for a sum of Rs. 75 Lakhs as per the Treaty of Amritsar.
This is how the Princely State of Jammu & Kashmir came together for d first time with Gulab Singh Dogra becoming the Raja of Jammu & Kashmir
47. 1857 AD: During 1st war of Indian Independence, Raja Gulab Singh Dogra chose 2 side with Britishers & gave refuge to many britishers
He also provided troops to quell the Indian rebellion.
Soon, Gulab Singh was succeeded to the Dogra throne by his son, Ranbir Singh Dogra who added Hunza valley, Gilgit and Nagar to the Kingdom
48. 1890 AD: The Kashmiris, who had converted from Hinduism to Islam, were persecuted for their religion again under the Dogra Kings.
They faced heavy taxation, leading to many deciding to leave Kashmir, and settle in Punjab.
49. 1907 AD: Swami Lakshman Joo or Lal Sahib, a mystic and scholar of Kashmir Shaivism or Trika was born in Srinagar.
50. 1925 AD: Raja Hari Singh Dogra, the grandson of Raja Ranbir Singh Dogra, & the alumni of Mayo College Ajmer, ascended to the throne
He made primary education compulsory and banned child marriages. He was friends with Kashmiri Leader Sheikh Abdullah & disliked Jawahar Lal
51. 1931 AD: A mass movement starts against the new Maharaja. The state forces nip the bud very quickly and with brute force.
52. 1934 AD: Elections are held for a representative body of the Kashmiri People, called the Praja Sabha.
Muslim Conference Party (Which is known as the National Conference Party today) won 14 of the 21 seats reserved for Muslims
53. 1941 AD: 71,667 Kashmiris join the British Indian Army to fight overseas in World War II.
The recruitment exercise of the British Indian Army, has the blessings of the Maharaja.
54. 1946 AD: Sheikh Abdullah the most popular Kashmiri leader of the time, starts the Quit Kashmir Movement against the Maharaja.
55. 13 June 1947 AD: At the Joint Defence Council meeting, Jinnah and Nehru disagree on the accession of princely states
Jinnah asserting that it was for the rulers to decide and Nehru insisting that it was for the people.
56.11 July 1947 AD: Muhammad Ali Jinnah declares that if Kashmir opted for independence, Pakistan would have friendly relations with it.
57. 1947 AD: India Gained Independence& so does Pakistan. Princely states were free to either join 1 of the countries or remain independent
At this point, Jammu & Kashmir was a Muslim Majority state, with a Hindu sovereign - Kind of like an opposite of Hyderabad and Junagarh.
The Maharaja of Kashmir, looking to remain independent, signs a standstill agreement with Muhammad Ali Jinnah
The Signing by Nehru remains pending. Hari Singh is hoping to buy some time. 😒
58. 15th August 1947: Pakistan Signs the Standstill Agreement wid Pakistan, promising not to attack & continue all the previous arrangements
59. 9 September 1947: 3 weeks after signing Standstill Agreement with Kashmir, Pakistan cuts off supplies of petrol, sugar, salt & kerosene
and stops trade in timber, fruits, fur and carpets in violation of the agreement hoping to put some pressure on the Raja.
60. 1st October 1947: 45 days after signing Standstill Agreement with Kashmir, Mohammad Ali Jinnah gives a call to the Tribes of Waziristan
asking them to answer the holy call of liberating a muslim dominated region from the clutches of a non muslim usurper.
About 20,000 attackers converge in Abbottabad. They are armed and divided into 10 batches, lead by “on-leave” 😏 Army officers from Pakistan.
The Tribals wreck havoc in Kashmir. Raja’s forces are of no match. Within a few weeks, they reach the outskirts of Srinagar.
The Raja panics & writes to Lord Mountbatten, d governor General of India fr help. Mountbatten suggests him 2 sign d instrument of accession
61. 26 October 1947.
62. 27 October 1947: The Indian army enters the state to repel the invaders. Sheikh Abdullah endorses the accession.
National Conference Helps Indian Army fight against the Tribal Leaders. Raja Hari Singh appoints Sheikh Abdullah as head of d administration
63. 27 October 1947: Mohammad Ali Jinnah orders General Douglas Gracey to send Pakistani troops into Kashmir.
Gracey declines because of Kashmir's accession to India. Gracey had a 'stand down order' from the Supreme Commander Claude Auchinleck
to the effect that, in the event of an inter-Dominion war, all the British officers in both the armies must stand down.
64. 1 November 1947: Skirmishes reduce in intensity. Winter is coming😂
There is a stalemate of sort in the war.
65. 20 November 1947: Lord Mountbatten suggests to Nehru, that he should go to the newly formed successor to the League of Nations,
the UN for an international mediation, since India has a ‘solid and fool-proof’ case.
His proposal is discussed in the Indian cabinet. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel expresses his displeasure.
66. 25 November 1947: Massacre of 20,000 Hindus and Sikhs takes place at a shelter at Mirpur in what is now Azad Kashmir.
67. 4 December 1947: The British Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army sanctions military involvement in the Kashmir war.
One million rounds of ammunition and twelve volunteer officers are provided.
68. 28 December 1947: Lord Mountbatten writes to Nehru again, to convince him to ceasefire.
British Prime Minister Attlee warns Nehru that opening a broader war would jeopardise India's case in the UN.
69. 31 December 1947: India officially refers the Kashmir problem to the security council of the United Nations.
Alexander Cadogan, the permanent representative of the UN files a report claiming that,
“India was entitled to charge Pakistan as aggressor under Article 35 and to take measures for self-defence
under Article 51, including "pursuing invaders into Pakistan".
70. 15 January 1948: Both India and Pakistan present their case. India argues the case on the basis of legality.
Pakistan in her argument accuses India of committing a genocide in Kashmir and capturing Junagarh.
Pakistan calls for pulling back of both the Tribal fighters and the Indian forces out of Kashmir.
71. 21 April 1948: UN Security Council passes Resolution 47 calling for a three-step process for the resolution of the dispute:
Pakistani withdrawal of its troops, India to reduce its troops to minimum level, and arrangements for a plebiscite.
BOTH India and Pakistan reject this resolution.
72. 13 August 1948: UNCIP adopts its first resolution on Kashmir, fine-tuning the April resolution of the Security Council
2 take into account objections by both India & Pak
Pakistan's aggression is indirectly acknowledged by asking for its withdrawal as 1st step
The resolution is accepted by India, but effectively rejected by Pakistan. The fighting continues. There are small gains on both sides.
Both sides prepare for renewed war efforts, since - Winter is coming😂😂
73. 13 September 1948: Under a swift military intervention, codenamed Operation Polo, The Indian Army enters the Princely State of Hyderabad
74: 1 November 1948: Zoji La pass is finally captured by India after months of fighting. Ladakh is now secure in Indian hands.
75. 15 November 1948: Drass sector is recaptured from the Pakistani forces after weeks of heavy fighting and loss of life on both sides.
76. 23 November 1948: Kargil is captured back from the Pakistani forces. This one’s special, because the terrain here is the most difficult
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