Essentially none of these things work right if people don't have a shared sense of national identity.
In America, we have had under-investment and political dysfunction for decades because a significant chunk of white Americans don't want to pay for stuff that benefits black Americans.
If no one takes your advice because racism trumps economic interests, policy econ is *useless*.
But I believe they can help, by doing empirical work on the subject.
So it's time for economists to think more about solving the problem of racial division.
It's not what economists were trained to think about, but here we are. (end)