This thread is on the history of all 10 #Sikh Gurus.
The paintings of the gurus are from an album with @RCT, c1800 by unknown artist, all are similar looking. To start with, a painting of
#GuruNanak Dev Ji with the 9 subsequent Gurus. By Bhai Puran Singh,1885.
#SikhHeritageMonth Image
1st Guru #GuruNanak ji was born on 20th October,1469 at #Talwandi (#NankanaSahib) and died at #Kartarpur, #Pakistan on 22nd Sept,1539. Lifetime guru, he attempted to bridge Hindu Muslim divide,was against cast system & Sati practice.
#kartarpurcorridor #Sikhism. Image
Lehna was named the 2nd #Sikh Guru as #GuruAngad Dev Ji from 18th September 1539 to 16th April 1552.
He invented & introduced the #Gurmukhi script, expanded the Guru Ka Langar (free kitchen)& opened schools for child education.63 stanzas composed by him are in Granth Sahib.
@RCT Image
3rd #GuruAmardas ji was the #Sikh Guru from 16th April1552 till 16th September1574. Collected the writings of previous gurus, thus forming 1st Manuscript of the #Sikh holy book #GuruGranthSahib.
Fought against caste system, untouchability, Sati & Purdah. Stood for women equality. Image
Jetha was named as #GuruRamDas ji as the 4th #Sikh Guru from 16th September 1574 till 16th September 1581. Born in Chuna Mandi, #Lahore, he founded the #GoldenTemple #HarMandirSahib #Amritsar whose foundation was laid by #Sufi Mian Mir.
Strengthened the #AnandKaraj marriage form. Image
5th Guru from 16th Sept 1581 to 16th June 1606, #ArjanDev ji founded Gurudwara #DeraSahib, #Lahore & cities #TaranTaran & #Jalandhar. Compiled #AdiGranth with hyms of Hindu & Muslim saints Wrote #SukmaniSahib. Became 1st #Sikh martyr when #Mughal ruler #Jahangir had him executed. Image
6th Guru #HarGobind ji (11th June 1606 to 19th March 1644) is known as Soldier Saint. By now, #Sikh were in confrontation with #Mughal. Organised a small army, introduced the #MiriPiri, 2 sword symbol of the Sikhs representing temporal & spiritual powers, beginning Sikh Military. Image
7th Guru #HarRai ji from 19th March 1644 to 20th October 1661 was a man of peace, avoiding political controversy & conflict with #Mughal ruler #Aurengzeb. Yet, he never disbanded the armed #Sikh warriors (Soldier Saints). He devoted most of his time towards missionary work. Image
Guru #HarKrishan became 8th #Sikh Guru at the age of 5 on 20th October 1661 for a period of little over 2 years, dying of small pox while serving the epidemic stricken people of #Delhi, on 16th April 1664, aged just 13
Known as #BalaPir & #BalGuru (Child Prophet)
@builthistories Image
9th Guru #TegBahadur 16th April 1664 till beheading on 24th Nov 1675 at #ChandniChowk, by #Mughal #Aurengzeb. Established #AnandpurSahib. 2 famous #Delhi Gurudwaras, Sis Ganj (site of beheading) & Rakab Ganj (cremation) are associated with him.
Gave up life defending human rights Image
10th Guru, #GobindSingh 24th Nov 1675 to 7th October 1708, born in #Patna, died #Nanded. Reorganised #Sikh religion by establishing Khalsa, 5 special symbols & Singh (Male), Kaur (F) names.
Painting missing @RCT(why). This one c1890 from @britishlibrary, the Guru & 5 followers. Image
Having completed the holy book of #Sikhs called #GuruGranthSahib, Guru #GobindSingh made it known at #Nanded that henceforth, this book will be the next guru after his death. The eternal guru.
From @britishlibrary, c1660-75 the oldest surviving copy outside India.
@DalrympleWill Image

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More from @ssharadmohhan

11 May 19
'There is a #Nayika in every Woman'.
Written by Bharatmuni c100 BC- 300 AD, #NatyaShastra, a treatise on #PerformingArts represent 8 different states (#AshtaNayika) of the Heroine in her relationship to her lover (#Nayak) in #Art, #Literature & #Music / #Dance form.
The thread. Image
1. Vasakasajja Nayika (One Dressed for Union).
Here, the heroine is depicted in Garden or her bedroom, waiting for her hero to return home.
This #Pahari painting from #Kangra, c1775, is now with @britishlibrary.
@DalrympleWill @JAJafri Image
2. Virahotkanthita Nayika (One Distressed by Seperation)
The heroine (Utka) is the distressed #Nayika pining for lover who has failed to return home. Usually depicted sitting, standing, lying on a bed or out in the pavilion.
This c1700 #Pahari painting frm #Mankot, now @mfaboston Image
Read 9 tweets
23 Jan 19
The first #Mughal Emperor was Zahir ud din Mohammed #Babur Born in #Ferghana #Uzbekestan he ruled #India from #Delhi from 1st April 1526 to 26th December 1530.
This c1630 painting is from @V_and_A Artist unknown.
@DalrympleWill @India_Atelier @mukhoty @Bagh_eBabur Image
From @RCT this c1603 painting by artist #Mohan is of the 2nd emperor, Nasir ud din Mohd #Humayun, ruled from 26th Dec 1530 to 27th May 1540. Defeated by #Suri dynasty, he recovered the empire, ruling from 22nd Feb 1555 till 27th Jan 1556. Died falling from stairs
Tomb at #Delhi Image
From @hermitage_eng, the portrait by #Manohar c1580 is of the 3rd #Mughal Emperor Jalal ud din Mohammed #Akbar Ruling from #Agra from 27th Jan 1556 to 27th Oct 1605. Died from Dysentery and entombed at #Sikandra near Agra.
@DalrympleWill @mukhoty @India_Atelier @DilliKiRanaiyan Image
Read 29 tweets

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