- 32 byte keys seem to be the future. Not only Ethereum 2 is using them in SSZ, Libra will use them for account keys
- static generalized indices, can't find much for "light" clients, you're either a powerful validator, or a user (to be expected)
- SHA3-256. Not like eth1 (older SHA3), or ETH2 (SHA2-256, like bitcoin)
- No derived merkle structures ("hash tree root" in Eth 2) just bare binary trees.
- Sparse binary trees, with leafs moved upwards. Efficient, but not static enough (important too)
No BLS (like Eth 2), nor ECDSA (like Eth 1). EdDSA, edwards 25519 instead. Seems good for small values (roots), but like possibilities with BLS better.
Signing transactions seems to be very similar to Eth 1. More on that ⬇️
Transactions are pretty much the same as in Eth 1.
- "Sender address, pubkey": tx.from
- "Program": tx .to ++ .data
- "Gas price": tx.gasPrice, just in Libra coins.
- "Max gas": tx.gasLimit
- "seq nr": tx.nonce, incr. account value
"Modules": Like a smart-contract in Eth 1. Published through tx .data. But stays attached to sender account.
Their "MOVE" VM is interesting, has strong "asset" support. Really just a take on var-ownership/capabilities/mutability. Can be ported to an Eth2 EE.
"Events". Not readable from contracts, cheap, used to read changes live or back in history. Same as Eth 1.
Txs have an "event tree", instead of blocks. More ⬇️
No blocks, but batches. Everything is sequential, but abstracted away from blocks. No POW anyway. And event roots etc. are with each transaction in "Transaction-Info" instead.
They may have looked at our Simple-Serialize. But older version, without offsets for lookup efficiency (SOS style) or per-list max-sizes for static generalized indices. They do cover sparse lists as a simple TreeMap, encode key, encode value, repeat.
In Eth 2 we have offsets, so you don't have to deserialize a full MB (or more!) when only reading a small value/part.
In addition, Eth 2 is looking to do "sparse lists"; tree-maps by fixed-length index, with index lookup in header, similar to offsets.
In Eth1 we have miners doing POW
In Eth2 we have randao temporarily, and are going for VDF based shuffled committees, doing POS.
In Libra..., we elect leaders, and "validators" send blocks to the leader. More ⬇️