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Two pivotal events happened in ALAIGBO, 20 years apart on the SAME day -November 18:

#IvaValleyMassacre [1949; Enugu] and #AbaWomensWar [1929; Started in Oloko/Aba area/Owerri province, and spread to Calabar province and other areas]

1/ A Thread on 1929:…
2/ #NwanyiBuIfe #AbaWomensWar1929 #WomensWar90

"A two-month rebellion waged by local market women from the Igbo tribe of southeastern Nigeria against the excessive powers of the British government and its warrant chiefs at the height of colonialism."…
3/ "The Women’s War of 1929 holds an iconic place in the history of the Igbo and Ibibio people of South Eastern Nigeria. It has been a focal point for gender studies, nationalism, resistance, and cultural anthropology..."
4/ November 18th is the 90th Anniversary. Here's some recommended sources:

"The Women’s War of 1929:
A History of Anti-Colonial Resistance in Eastern Nigeria", by Toyin Falola and Adam Paddock

5/ “We are strong as men & we cannot be bent!”

Recommended reading:

"The impact of women’s political activism on the transition from British trusteeship to Nigerian self-govt
between 1914 and 1960", by Areeba Kamal…

6/ "This paper is an attempt to correct some misconceptions inherent in documented records of the Women's War by European writers."

- The Women’s War of 1929 in South-Eastern Nigeria by Felicia Ihuoma Abaraonye | From the book: "Women and Revolution" -…
7/ "Owing to the violent confrontations associated with the Women’s War and the widespread opposition of the women to colonial rule, the aftermath spawned both a change in the political system of South Eastern Nigeria (by 1933)."

#NwanyiBuIfe #WomensWar90 #AbaWomensWar1929
8/ "An immediate influx of anthropologists began to study a region that appeared to evade the understanding of British officials. Gender studies related to people of South Eastern Nigeria owe much to this early generation of researchers.."
9/ "The themes of resistance and nationalism produced an extensive bibliography; however, #AbaWomensWar of 1929 stands out as a special event, as it dramatically portrays widespread and organized opposition to colonialism at an early period of imperial governance."

10/ "The 1929 Women’s War occupies a prominent position in the historiography of Nigeria, and has led to much discussion of its meaning, causes, intentions, and outcomes.."

#NwanyiBuIfe #GenderMatters #WomensWar90 #AbaWomensWar #AbaWomensWar1929
11/ "The narratives of the 1929 Aba Women's War written by early researchers including A. E. Afigbo and Harry Gailey, need to be reconciled with the later focus on the cultural and social context in which the women lived and acted."

#NwanyiBuIfe #GenderMatters #AbaWomensWar
12/ "The protest, which was organised and led by RURAL women of Owerri & Calabar provinces, encompassed women from 6 Ethnic groups (Ibibio, Andoni, Ogoni, Bonny, Opobo, & Igbo). The “Women’s War” is seen as the FIRST major challenge to British authority in Nigeria & West Africa."
13/ "British administrators would rule locally through warrant chiefs, essentially Igbo individuals appointed by the governor. Traditionally, Igbo rulers had been ELECTED.

Within a few years the appointed warrant chiefs became increasingly oppressive." #NwanyiBuIfe #AbaWomensWar
14/ "The Warrant Chiefs seized property, imposed draconian local regulations & began imprisoning anyone who openly criticized them. Although much of the anger was directed against the warrant chiefs, most Nigerians knew the source of their power, British colonial administrators."
15/ "Colonial administrators added to the local sense of grievance when they announced plans to impose special taxes on the Igbo market women.

The women’s revolt was sparked after a dispute between a woman named Nwanyeruwa and a man, Mark Emereuwa." #NwanyiBuIfe #AbaWomensWar
16/ "Mark Emereuwa was conducting a census of the people living in the town controlled by the Warrant Chief, Okugo. On the morning of NOVEMBER 18, Emereuwa arrived at Nwanyereuwa’s house, and approached her, since her husband Ojim, had already died."

#NwanyiuIfe #AbaWomensWar
17/ "He told the widow to “count her goats, sheep and people.” Since Nwanyereuwa understood this to mean, “How many of these things do you have so we can tax you based on them”, she was angry. She replied by saying “Was your widowed mother counted"?”

#NwanyiBuIfe #AbaWomensWar
18/ "The two exchanged angry words, and Nwanyeruwa went to the town square to discuss the incident with other women who happened to be holding a meeting to discuss the issue of taxing women...."

#NwanyiBuIfe #WomensWar90 #AbaWomensWar #AbaWomensWar1929 #90thAnniversary #Oloko

19/ "Believing they would be taxed, based on Nwanyeruwa’s account, the Oloko women invited other women (by sending leaves of palm-oil trees) from other areas in the Bende District, as well as from Umuahia & Ngwa.."

#NwanyiBuIfe #WomensWar #AbaWomensWar
20/ "They gathered nearly 10,000 women who protested at the office of Warrant Chief Okugo, demanding his resignation and calling for a trial.

During the 2-month “war”, at least 25,000 women overall were involved in protests against British officials."

#NwanyiBuIfe #AbaWomensWar
21/ "About fifty-five women were killed and over 50 women wounded by the colonial troops.

The Leaders of the protest in Oloko are known as the Oloko Trio: Ikonnia, Nwannedia and Nwugo. The three were known for their skills in speaking, their intelligence and their passion..."
22/ "When protests became tense, it was often these 3 who were able to de-escalate the situation, preventing violence. However, after 2 women were killed while blocking colonial roads, the trio was not able to calm the situation there, the police and army were sent to the town.."
23/ "Nwanyereuwa played a major role in keeping the protests non-violent. She was advanced in age compared to many who led the protests. Under her advice, the women protested in song and dance, using a traditional practice of censoring men called “Sitting on a Man”.

24/ "To Warrant Chief Okugo, they sang:
“Ma o ghara ibu nwa beke mma anyiu egbuole Okugo rie” If it were not for the whyte man we would have killed Chief Okugo & eaten him up.”

As the revolt spread, other groups followed this pattern"

#NwanyiBuIfe #AbaWomensWar1929 #WomensWar90
25/ #NwanyiBuIfe "In smaller towns, women used this method to force the warrant chiefs to resign their positions.

The women’s protests were carried out on a scale that the colonial state had never witnessed in any part of Africa..."

#AbaWomensWar #WomensWar90 #AbaWomensWar1929
26/ "Ten native courts were destroyed, a number of others were damaged, houses of native court personnel were attacked, and European factories at Imo River, Aba, Mbawsi, & Amata were looted. Women attacked prisons, and released prisoners."

#AbaWomensWar #WomensWar90 #NwanyiBuIfe
27/ "The British Foreign Office condemned it and a commission was set up to ascertain the problem. Unsurprisingly the commission made up of only British personnel came up with points absolving British administrators in the area while blaming the development wholly on Aba women."
28/ "However, the new admin under Governor Donald Cameron took into account some of the women’s recommendations in revising the structure of the Native Administration. Thus, the Women’s War is seen as the historical dividing point in British colonial administration in Nigeria..."
29/ "As a result of the protests, the position of women in society was greatly improved. In some areas, women were able to replace the Warrant Chiefs. Women were also appointed to serve on the Native Courts.

After the Women’s war, women’s movements were very strong in Nigeria.."
30/ "Many events in the 1930s, 40s and 50s were inspired by the #WomensWar, including the Tax Protests of 1938, the Oil Mill Protests of the 1940s in Owerri and Calabar Provinces and the Tax Revolt in Aba and Onitsha in 1956."

#AbaWomensWar #ClaimingOurNarratives #NwanyiBuIfe..
The End/ On Nov 18, 1929, WOMEN IN SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA changed the trajectory of history & fought for their rights #NwanyiBuIfe #Echefula #Echezona

On November 18, 2019, let's REMEMBER & HONOUR them, as we mark the 90th Anniversary of #AbaWomensWar1929 #AbaWomensWar #WomensWar
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