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How did you study Science in Anglo-Saxon England?

Well, this #ScienceWeek, let us introduce you to Bede 'the Venerable', and his scientific treatises (and computus) exploring the mathematical and physical basis of time ⌛ A tonsured seated scribe, w...
The idea of science in the early Middle Ages is a broad one, encompassing many subjects. The root of the word ‘science’ comes from the Latin scientia, meaning ‘knowledge’. In the Middle Ages, a person’s ‘science’ referred to his understanding of a particular topic.
Among the earliest and most widespread mathematical texts and diagrams are those that dealt with time-reckoning: determining moveable feasts, which involved using both arithmetic and astronomy through computus. A page from Bede's 'De temp...A page from Bede's 'De natu...
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🧵1. #IPERN officially launched on #StPatricksDay 2021 so it's our 1st birthday today!🎂🚑☘ It's been quite a year - we've hosted 10 events featuring 49 speakers (31% International 🌍 65% Female 🚺). Presented at 3 conferences, secured 3 grants and launched 5 SIG! #IrishEMS
2. How it all began… we announced ourselves to the Twitter world on Feb 1st '21. In Ireland this is traditionally the start of Spring (#Imbolc) so a time for new beginnings. It’s also St. Brigid‘s Day our matron saint who Is renowned as a healer #IrishEMS
3. Our official #IPERN launch on #StPatricksDay 2021 featured a fantastic array of Irish researchers presenting "elevator pitches" of their work and also included best wishes from international friends & colleagues! #IrishEMS
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Taronga Wildlife Hospital cares for rescued marine turtles, prior to their release back to the wild. Preliminary satellite tracking data from rehabilitated #turtles indicate certain sites along the #NSW coast may be important foraging & resting grounds. #ScienceWeek
Taronga scientists Dr Jo Day & Dr Phoebe Meagher are working in collaboration with Bioplatforms Australia, Griffith Uni, Dolphin Marine Conservation Park, Australian Seabird Rescue, Irukandji Shark & Ray Encounters, to understand marine #turtle movement & habitat use in #NSW
The team are currently identifying the nesting stock origin of green #turtles found in NSW waters using #DNA. Stable isotope analysis then identifies key foraging sites in #NSW. Collectively, their collaborative #science informs direct #ConservationManagement.
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Taronga’s marine scientists, in collaboration with Macquarie Uni & others internationally, are investigating the effects of pulsed electric fields on #shark physiology & behavior to deliver innovative improvements in deterrents to save the lives of people & #sharks. #ScienceWeek
This @ARC_gov_au funded project builds on a previous ARC LP by this team that uncovered information on #shark vision and demonstrated the effectiveness of counter-illumination (light emitting) devices in deterring shark attacks
The new project (late 2020>) will test the effectiveness of existing & improved personal deterrents against attacks from white, bull & tiger #sharks. This should reduce fatalities by increasing device-use, while also reducing the need for indiscriminate meshing/culling programs.
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Taronga scientists also manage the Australian #Shark Attack File (ASAF). This long-term database & resource provides valuable insights on incidents and the effectiveness of possible deterrents. #ScienceWeek….
Research using ASAF data led by Laura Ryan with Taronga’s Dr David Slip, Macquarie University, DPI and UNSW scientists, generated predictive models for #shark attacks in Australian waters based on environmental conditions. .…
This paper identified rainfall & sea surface temperature anomaly as key predictors, and is of great value in designing a potential warning system platform that can allow water users to make more informed decisions before entering the water.
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On the subject of Port Jackson #sharks, another collaborative project involving Taronga's Dr Jo Day used long-term acoustic monitoring to show that PJ #sharks migrate inshore in winter to breed. PC: Bluebottle Films. #ScienceWeek
Further #ConservationGenetics work led by Taronga's Dr Jo Day uncovered evidence of high breeding site fidelity in female Port Jackson #sharks (Sydney Harbour and Jervis Bay) & highlighted important areas & actions for their #ConservationManagement.
Previously the extent of reproductive philopatry (tendency to return to an area to breed) was unknown for this species, which made targeted #ConservationManagement impossible. #ConservationGenetics #MarineScience #ScienceWeek
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As Taronga’s Research & #Conservation Coordinator, & a marine biologist specializing in #ConservationGenetics, Dr Jo Day, wears many hats – & most are waterproof! Jo’s work covers many areas & species, including the little-known Port Jackson #shark... #MarineScience #ScienceWeek
Data from GPS and accelerometer tags fitted to Taronga zoo-based Port Jackson #sharks allowed the team to identify resting & active swimming, as well as feeding behaviour.
Using fine and broad scale #MovementEcology data from these Port Jackson #sharks, #MachineLearning models allowed the team to identify these key behaviours in this elusive #marine #shark species.…
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Getting lost in the crowd can be a problem when you’re an #endangered sea lion pup. Taronga behavioural ecologist @PitcherBen & collaborators are decoding #Australian #sealion communication to understand how mothers and pups recognise each other in a busy colony #ScienceWeek
Australian sea lions use a combination of sound, sight and smell to communicate and recognise their pups. Mothers can use the size and colour patterns in pup coats to help located their offspring in a colony… @RSocPublishing #AnimalCommunication
Smell is critical to recognition. Mums will smell pups they encounter while searching the colony to confirm which pup is their own offspring. Each sea lion has a unique smell and mums learn the odour of their pup… #AnimalCommunication
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Preserving natural behaviours can be as important as other considerations like genetic diversity when planning a #ConservationBreeding program. Naivety to predators is one of the biggest challenges when releasing animals into the wild. #ScienceWeek
Taronga’s #ConservationBehaviour Lab works with keepers & partners to ensure species like #RegentHoneyeaters display behaviours needed to survive in the wild - such as identifying & responding to predators. Mixing in a multispecies aviary is one approach…
To understand if Taronga-bred #RegentHoneyeaters recognise wild predators like currawongs, we’re showing them predator models (& controls!). Safe exposure to danger allows us to see how they’ll respond when released. If needed, we'll teach them what a predator looks like
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Taronga is also reminding #RegentHoneyeaters how to tweet! Their song has been changing, perhaps due to small fragmented populations &reduced opportunity to learn from adults. Taronga keepers began playing songs to juvenile birds to teach them the right ones to sing. #ScienceWeek
Results are showing that #RegentHoneyeaters that were tutored to sing, either directly by adult birds or by virtual tutoring, had a better chance of surviving in the wild.
We’re now working with researchers at ANU to understand how best to teach birds to sing and why song is important to survival…
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The #RegentHoneyeater is one of Australia’s most #CriticallyEndangered birds. There are <350 birds left in the wild. For >20y, Taronga has been #ConservationBreeding an insurance population. Since 2008, >300 birds have been released to bolster wild populations. #ScienceWeek
#RegentHoneyeaters are in decline due to threats from #habitatloss and degradation. #Drought, #bushfire, competition, and now even the precariously small size of the remaining population all pose risks to the species’ survival.
Our team of #RegentHoneyeater keepers are experts in #ConservationBreeding these amazing birds. Here specialist keeper Kara Stevens explains our progress at Taronga Western Plains Zoo, Dubbo.
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Another flagship and large collaborative #ConservationBreeding project that Taronga is involved in concerns the #CriticallyEndangered #PlainsWanderer, a bird that few people have probably heard of and even fewer have seen. #ScienceWeek
The #PlainsWanderer has no living close relative, which places it top of the @EDGEofExistence list. Remnant populations of this small ground-dwelling bird are mostly in Victoria, eastern South Australia and in the western Riverina region of NSW.
Though excellently camouflaged, #PlainsWanderer are just the right size to be eaten by invasive foxes. Taronga is working with @ZoosVictoria to establish an insurance population & recently built a #ConservationBreeing facility at Taronga Western Plains Zoo #sanctuary, #Dubbo.
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A fantastic moment in Taronga’s #bilby #conservation program was releasing #bilbies to SturtNP Western #NSW as part of the Wild Deserts Project. This large collaboration centres on #reintroduction of locally #extinct species. #SavingOurSpecies #ScienceWeek
The #bilbies are a key part of the Wild Deserts project in #SturtNP and, as ecosystem engineers, are paving the way to #HabitatRestoration across thousands of hectares in #NSW. #SavingOurSpecies PC: Bobby-Jo Vial
The #reintroduction of #bilbies to the wild as part of the Wild Deserts project with UNSW, DPIE and the region’s Traditional Owners, the Wongkumara and Maljangata people, was a great step forward in restoring this western corner of NSW. PC: Bobby-Jo Vial
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But this is only part of the #bilby story. How did #bilbies behave once they were released into the Taronga #sanctuary, and did this affect overall success? To find out, we attached GPS devices & radio-transmitters to bilbies to track their movements post-release. #ScienceWeek
GPS devices collected incredibly detailed data on nightly #bilby movements, and radio-transmitters allowed us to locate #bilbies underground during the day. This track shows how bilby “Charlie” used the sanctuary just after release
Tracking data revealed hidden #bilby behaviours, such as their little-known social lives! It turns out that #bilbies have quite complex #socialnetworks and that bilby sociality may help explain some of the story behind their post-release success.
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Once #feralpests were removed and undetected on #cameratraps or other surveys in the Taronga Western Plains Zoo sanctuary for some time, it was time to cut the ribbon, and the apron strings, and release the #bilby founders. #ScienceWeek
Of course, all #bilbies underwent thorough health checks with the Taronga Western Plains Zoo veterinary professionals prior to release. #WildlifeHealth
“Allow me to reintroduce myself”… some #bilbies were super keen to get on with the program, digging out of the pre-release yard into the #sanctuary. Fortunately, their radio-transmitters allowed the team to locate, catch and return them, ready for the official release.
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A flagship project for Taronga is the greater #bilby #conservation breeding program at Taronga Western Plains Zoo in #Dubbo, which is a collaboration with multiple partners, including the @NSWDPIE #SavingOurSpecies program. #ScienceWeek
While the ultimate aim is securing the species in the wild, producing animals fit #ForTheWild and a sanctuary fit to house them in, constitutes a significant amount of the work towards achieving this goal.
To prepare for the #bilby release, introduced predators (#foxes) and herbivores (#rabbits) were detected, removed, and excluded from the 110ha fenced #sanctuary. Detection involved #cameratraps, track plates, and thermal cameras
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In our zoos, we’re constantly observing & monitoring the animals & their environments. We measure sound levels, temperature fluctuations & visitor numbers. Understanding how animals perceive their environments is fundamental to designing & maintaining good zoos. #ScienceWeek
An example of a recent research project in at Taronga Zoo in #Sydney was to look at the so-called visitor effect on our animals. E.g. How do our animals perceive zoo visitors? #HumanAnimalInteractions
We observed the interactions between four species of macropods (#kangaroo, #wallaby) and visitors in a walk-through exhibit. As visitor numbers increased, animals spent more time ‘on the lookout’ keeping an eye on what the visitors were doing. #HumanAnimalInteractions
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As a world-leader in #WildlifeManagement, Taronga continuously improves how we monitor #AnimalHealth & #AnimalWelfare in our zoos & our #conservation programs. This includes tackling the challenges of remotely monitoring, when we can’t have eyes & ears on the ground. #ScienceWeek Image
Observing #AnimalBehaviour & doing #AnimalHealth checks is only part of the picture. New #tech4wildlife help us identify potential welfare issues in real-time, especially for animals in remote locations, or large groups, or those where immediate up-close assessment isn't possible
Taronga scientists collect and analyse data on wild and zoo-based animals using field-based observation, video footage, #drones, and #CitizenScience. From these data we gain unique insights into both fine-scale movements of individuals, and broad behavioural states of the animals
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#Coralreefs incl. the #GreatBarrierReef are threatened by ocean warming & acidification, as a result of human-driven #ClimateChange. For an overview of climate projections, the latest #IPCC report takes a deep sobering dive into what's ahead. #ScienceWeek…
#Coralreefs are complex life support systems and their degradation has devastating impacts on marine life and on terrestrial animal populations, including humans. #RRAP
As environmental events and stressors lead to the loss of #coral & threaten the #GreatBarrierReef, initiatives such as Taronga’s CryoDiversity Bank offer a means to secure their current #GeneticDiversity. #RRAP
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In 2019, a population of Booroolong #frogs was rescued & translocated to Taronga for temporary holding in light of devastating impacts on its environment following prolonged drought & approaching Black Summer #bushfires… #SavingOurSpecies #ScienceWeek Image
Time was of the essence! These #frogs live only 3-4 years & were all adults on arrival at Taronga. These critical but ageing founders possess unique genes necessary for their species to adapt and survive in an ever-changing environment. Image
Cryopreserving sperm can be stored indefinitely, and so we can ensure that the #GeneticDiversity of wild populations is retained by helping these precious males produce offspring. Look at the frog sperm here!
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#UrbanEcology also plays a key role in forming and maintaining meaningful connections with nature. Maintaining these through adolescence is crucial to #conservation and tackling our environmental issues and the #BiodiversityCrisis. @NSWEducation #ScienceWeek Image
Our recent research showed that primary kids in #Sydney were more connected to nature than kids in high school… Also, girls were more connected than boys, and were more likely to volunteer for #conservation.
Read more about this work, and what can be done to tackle the adolescent dip in connection with nature, here in @ConversationEDU:…
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#CitizenScience allows Taronga & collaborators to collate valuable ecological data over scales that would be difficult to achieve through traditional methods. Another plus? It also means that you can get directly involved in Taronga #Science! #ScienceWeek Image
The #brushturkey project is a great example of this… Taronga's Dr John Martin & Dr Alicia Burns & their collaborators were finalists in the 2020 Australian Museum Eureka Prize for Innovation in #CitizenScience. Go team! #ScienceWeek Image
While accolades are nice, significant ecological insights are the main outcome. These apps are a gift that keeps on giving, and recently Taronga joined forces with partners to combining them into an all new @BigCityBirds app. Image
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Day 4 of #ScienceWeek, and we’re following in the wingbeats of Dr John Martin (@Wingtags) from Taronga’s #ConservationScience team. Taronga’s terrestrial ecologist focuses on #UrbanEcology #CitizenScience. Image
From #binchickens to dumpster-diving #cockatoos, Taronga's #UrbanEcology work is rich and varied. Take a peak at some of these collaborative #CitizenScience projects and their outcomes in today’s #ScienceWeek threads. Image
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Today, on day 3 of #ScienceWeek, we’re also delving into another major driver of #biodiversityloss and focus of Taronga #Science: the #illegalwildlifetrade or #IWT. Tonnes of live animals & their parts are traded illegally internationally driving many species towards #extinction Pangolin being sampled in P...
Taronga and partners are developing novel #IWT tools and technologies to curb the illegal removal of #wildlife from their natural environments, which negatively impacts individual #animalhealth, #animalwelfare, and #ecosystemresilience Dr Phoebe Meagher and Dr Ka...
#wildlife laundering might be a new term for you, but players in the #InternationalWildlifeTrade can pass off wild animals by masquerading them as captive bred. Enter Taronga’s Wildlife Forensic #Science team. #WildlifeCSI #IWT
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