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Jul 7, 2019 52 tweets 69 min read Read on X
2019 is the 50th edition of the #SIPRIYearbook. Join SIPRI as we celebrate the occasion with a 50-day countdown and share the history of the Yearbook over the past 50 years. Watch the introductory video with SIPRI Director @dansmith2020:
The first #SIPRIYearbook was published in 1969 with the aim ‘to produce a factual and balanced account of a controversial subject—the arms race and attempts to stop it’. The rise in world military spending and disarmament efforts, including the #NPT, take central focus.
'In whatever way the nuclear situation is examined, the inescapable feature is what enormous quantities of weapons have been amassed' – Movement towards a first-strike capability by the #US and #USSR, the #SALT talks and European security were a focus of the 1970 #SIPRIYearbook.
Connie Wall worked at SIPRI from 1970 to 2007 as Publications Manager. Read her reflections on the #SIPRIYearbook and her time at SIPRI ➡️
In 1972 the #SIPRIYearbook was redesigned, featuring a new cover and colour-coded parts. A special Postscript was also included, highlighting the treaties and conventions that were signed into force that year:

#SALT agreements ➡️ 26 May
#BWC ➡️ 10 April
#Sea-bed Treaty ➡️ 18 May
‘The @UN General Assembly, in a resolution of 29 November 1972, deplored the use of #napalm and other incendiary weapons in armed conflicts’ – The prohibition of inhumane and indiscriminate weapons was included in a Special Topics section in the 1973 #SIPRIYearbook.
Despite the signing of a ceasefire agreement ending US involvement in Vietnam, the development of ICBMs, anti-submarine warfare, the Middle East War and the proliferation of new weapons and technologies led the ‘#ArmsRace to become a global phenomenon’ in the 1974 #SIPRIYearbook.
One focus of the 1975 #SIPRIYearbook was the #Indian nuclear test on 8 May 1974, which demonstrated ‘the fragility of efforts to prevent the proliferation of #nuclear weapons and focused worldwide attention on the consequences of the spread of peaceful nuclear #technology’.
#Environmental and #ecological warfare was a new chapter in the 1976 #SIPRIYearbook. It discussed the modification of weather, climate, oceans, earthquakes, the atmosphere and the ecological damage of modern warfare.
‘Can a far-reaching disarmament treaty—including nuclear disarmament—be achieved, using traditional methods of #diplomacy and international law? SIPRI believes that it can’—SIPRI Director Frank Barnaby advocates for nuclear #disarmament in the Preface of the 1977 #SIPRIYearbook
On 3 October 1977 the US-Soviet interim agreement limiting strategic offensive weapons expired. The possibility for the proliferation of cruise missiles and the implications this would have for #disarmament and #military #technology was one focus of the 1978 #SIPRIYearbook.
The continued unabated militarization of #space was discussed in the 1979 #SIPRIYearbook. 112 military satellites were launched in 1978—1 every 3 days—and the Cosmos 954 accident brought the future of nuclear power systems aboard satellites to international debate at the @UN.
Despite the signing of the SALT II agreement in 1979, the arms business remained 'one of the fastest-growing sectors within the world #economy'. The estimate of the value of major #ArmsExports in the 1980 #SIPRIYearbook was 500% higher than in 1969 and 1200% higher than in 1959.
‘Long-term #security problems are being created by short-term #economic interests’ — The Second NPT Review Conference was a focus of the 1981 #SIPRIYearbook. Below is a list of the parties to the #NPT Treaty as of 31 December 1980.
The 1982 #SIPRIYearbook contained a regional study on Latin America which analysed the militarization of the region, the status of nuclear arms control, and the impact of US and Cuban policies and how they have created a climate for interference by other states in the region.
Force reductions in Europe, the Committee on Disarmament, the Special Session on Disarmament in New York and the Falklands War were some of the major topics in the 1983 #SIPRIYearbook. SIPRI also received the 1982 @UNESCO Prize for Peace Education, featured on the back cover.
@UNESCO The interest in ballistic missile defense systems #BMD in space raised special concern in the 1984 #SIPRIYearbook. The possibility for another round of arms competition between the #USA and the #USSR would 'accelerate the nuclear arms race rather than check it’.
@UNESCO ‘This is a clear breach of international law, but the reaction of the international community has been muted’—The use of chemical weapons in the Iran—Iraq War, nuclear winter and growing public interest in arms control were some of the topics covered in the 1985 #SIPRIYearbook.
@UNESCO The 1986 #SIPRIYearbook was the first edition published by @OUPAcademic. Dominic Byatt, Publisher Social Sciences & Humanities, recounts his first days working at the Press in 1993 and reflects on the significance of the #SIPRIYearbook ➡️
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic Dr Hans Blix, the then Director-General of the @iaeaorg and past Chair of the SIPRI Governing Board, wrote a special feature on the implications of the #Chernobyl reactor accident in the 1987 #SIPRIYearbook. The Reykjavík Summit and the Stockholm Document were also discussed.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg On 8 Dec. 1987, the US and the USSR signed the #INFTreaty. The 1988 #SIPRIYearbook marked the breakthrough in arms control efforts in a Special Feature. The inconsistency between desires for peace, social justice and human rights and the reality of world events was also discussed
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg Despite the destruction of modern nuclear weapons by the US and the USSR and the announcement of a cut and restructuring of Soviet military forces by Mikail Gorbachev at the UN on 7 Dec. 1988, the 1989 #SIPRIYearbook noted 'the momentum of nuclear weapon developments continues'.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg The 1990 #SIPRIYearbook had the challenge of marking the ‘dramatic end of an important and crisis-laden chapter in post-war East-West history’. The opening of the Berlin Wall, the 4th NPT Review Conference, international debt and regional conflicts were the major topics covered.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg The 1991 #SIPRIYearbook was the first year the Yearbook was typeset in-house. It was also the 25th anniversary of the Institute and the Yearbook featured a special cover and logo to celebrate the milestone.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg ‘Three decisive events affected the nuclear non-proliferation regime in 1991: the end of the cold war, the Persian Gulf War and the dissolution of the USSR’—a shift from the East-West agenda to global security concerns was evident in the 1992 #SIPRIYearbook.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg The new world order, the CWC, START II, sustainable development and the UN Conference on Environment and Development were discussed in the 1993 #SIPRIYearbook. The first Russian translation of the SIPRI Yearbook was also made available.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg In 1994, the 25th edition of the #SIPRIYearbook was published. Developments in the peace process in the Middle East, the end of apartheid in South Africa and the expansion of UN peacekeeping with nearly 80 000 troops deployed in 18 operations.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg The reluctance of the international community to intervene in Rwanda, continuing wars in the former Yugoslavia, and conflicts in Chechnya and elsewhere cemented the need for a coherent conflict-prevention and resolution strategy in the 1995 #SIPRIYearbook.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg ‘The risk of an outbreak of global nuclear war has diminished, but the danger of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction has increased’—Despite the indefinite extension of the NPT, existing security structures cannot meet the new threats in the 1996 #SIPRIYearbook.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg One major topic of the 1997 #SIPRIYearbook was the changing landscape of European security. The enlargement of NATO and the EU, the Atlantic partnership, the OSCE model and Russia’s position on these security debates were just some of the issues covered.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg Despite several treaties coming into force or agreed on such as the CWC, the Treaty of Bangkok and the APM Convention, the unresolved question of how to curb the ‘rapidly escalating proliferation of small arms’ was a central topic of discussion in the 1998 #SIPRIYearbook.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg The first Chinese translation and the 30th edition of the #SIPRIYearbook were published in 1999. The Good Friday Agreement, the nuclear tests carried out by India and Pakistan and their implications for the Kashmir conflict and the non-proliferation regime were prominent topics.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg #Globalization, the upcoming #UN Millennium Summit, the Stockholm Agenda for Arms Control, the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the intervention of Russian federal forces in Chechnya were some of the major topics covered in the 2000 #SIPRIYearbook.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg The 2001 #SIPRIYearbook marked ‘the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the third millennium’. The 2000 NPT Review Conference and the breakdown of the 1999 Lomé Peace Agreement in Sierra Leone were covered. The first Korean and Ukrainian translations were also published.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg ‘The global effort against international terrorism marks the appearance of a new paradigm in international politics’—The 2002 #SIPRIYearbook covered armaments, disarmament and security topics with the tragic events of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the USA in mind.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg In 2003, the #SIPRIYearbook covered topics ranging from the Rome Statute #ICC entering into force, the 2002 #HCOC and the process of budgeting for the military sector in Africa. The Yearbook also featured five short essays by external and internal contributors.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg The 2003 Iraq war took central focus in the 2004 #SIPRIYearbook with numerous chapters, including military research and development, concentrating on the event and its aftermath. In 2004 the first Arabic translation of the Yearbook was also published.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg The 2005 #SIPRIYearbook analysed the emergence of the USA as a ‘single superpower’, the average annual rate of increase in world military expenditure of 6% over the period 2002–2004 and the UN High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg A 40-year overview of military expenditure data, status and statehood in the Western Balkans and a special preface to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Institute were featured in the 2006 #SIPRIYearbook.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg The 2007 #SIPRIYearbook featured an analysis of the #EnergySecurity conundrum which concentrated on concerns of the ‘production, use and supply of #oil and #gas, and on the external dimensions of energy policy’. 2007 saw the #Japanese translation of the Yearbook published.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg Major #ArmsControl and #disarmament mechanisms faltering or making little progress, a 45% increase in global military spending from 1998–2007 and integrating #gender in post-conflict security sector reform were some of the major topics of discussion in the 2008 #SIPRIYearbook.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg In 2009, the 40th edition of the #SIPRIYearbook was released. This edition featured a redesign of the cover and covered topics such as mass displacement caused by conflicts, security and politics in Afghanistan, the SIPRI Top-100 arms-producing companies and more.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg ‘The idea of a world without nuclear weapons is no longer a fantasy…but an operational reality’–A guest essay by James E. Goodby, the 2009 Prague speech by President Obama and North Korea's nuclear tests highlighted the current state of disarmament in the 2010 #SIPRIYearbook.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg The 2011 #SIPRIYearbook covered topics and events such as the 2010 #NPT Review Conference, the Preparatory Committee for the UN Conference on the #ArmsTradeTreaty (ATT), the #NewSTART between Russia and the USA and corruption in the arms trade.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg The 2011 uprisings and regime changes of the Arab Spring drew international attention and were a major focus of the 2012 #SIPRIYearbook. Increasing violence in the Horn of Africa, and new peace operations in Sudan and South Sudan, Libya and Syria were also discussed.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg In 2013, the #SIPRIYearbook discussed the rise of #cybersecurity as a national security issue, the increase of non-state conflicts and one-sided violence and analysed how the armed conflicts in #Syria, #Yemen and #Mali in were related to the Arab Spring.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg The Syrian conflict produced 'some of the most destructive and intense fighting anywhere in the world’. Three essays in the 2014 #SIPRIYearbook analysed the conflict covering media bias, restricting arms supplies and arms control implications of the use of chemical weapons.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg The 2015 #SIPRIYearbook noted a trend towards ‘containing, rather than resolving, conflicts’. Territorial disputes in the South China Sea, the rise of the Islamic State, the Ukraine conflict and gender dimensions of conflict and peace were some of the topics covered.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg To mark the 50th anniversary of the Institute, Ambassador Sven-Olof Petersson wrote a special Preface to the 2016 #SIPRIYearbook. The #JCPOA, 2015 #NPT Review Conference, the global refugee crisis, the #SDGs and the Paris Agreement on #ClimateChange were also covered.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg The 2017 #SIPRIYearbook highlighted the 2016 peace agreement in Colombia, Arms Trade Treaty ratifications, the Anthropocene epoch and the continued increase in military spending, trading of arms, violent conflict and forward march of military technology.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg Some of the highlights of the 2018 #SIPRIYearbook: confrontation between the US and North Korea, armed conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa, peace operations, and international arms transfers and military spending stabilizing ‘at a level higher than it was at the end of the cold war’.
@UNESCO @OUPAcademic @iaeaorg SIPRI celebrates the launch of #SIPRIYearbook 2019, the 50th edition, by making all editions from 1969 to 2016 available to download for free from our website. Explore how the Yearbook remains the independent resource on global security since 1969 ➡️…

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