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The djinn/jinn are the most famous beings of the Middle East and Islam, but Middle Eastern folklore is full of fantastic creatures. Some of them are terrifying and others benevolent.

A thread on mythic and legendary beasts and monsters
The Rukh, or Roc is an enormous eagle that could carry an elephant in its talons. Appearing in the story of Sinbad the sailor and other tales, it was reputed to live on the island of Madagascar.

It was so vast that Ibn Battuta thought it a floating mountain over the China Sea.
The Simurgh is a similar mythic bird in Persian lore, though of a benevolent nature. With gorgeous plumes like that of a peacock and symbolizing wisdom, it took on special significance in Sufi stories.

It can be found nesting in the Hoama, the Avestan divine plant/tree of life
In Turkish lore, Konrul is a Simurgh-like creature though described as a massive peacock with the head of a dog and associated with cyclic regeneration like the Phoenix.

It can be summoned by burning its feathers.
The great sea monster, Bahamut lies in the deep of the ocean. Sometimes a massive serpent, other times a great fish, it is often depicted as the underpinning that holds up the earth.
In al Qazwini’s text Bahamut rests on the shoulders of an angel and in turn supports Kuyutha or Kiyuban a great bull upon which the world rests.

Kuyutha is described as having tens of thousands of horns and his breath forms the tides.
Dendan is another great beast of the sea. A massive fish or whale, it is capable of swallowing whole ships.
The great Abbasid alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan tells of Tabib al Bahr a fish-like creature of enormous power and knowledge. With the capacity to appear as a mermaid-like being, it has a giant gemstone on its head which it rubs on injured sea creatures to heal them.
A docile being, one was reputed to have been caught, mated with a sailor, had a child, and tended to the wounded on the ship before slipping back into the waters.
The terrifying Nasnas is a human-djinn offspring. Some treat them as a class of djinn others as monsters all their own. They are said to have half a head, one leg, and one arm.

Similarly, the Qutrub is a werewolf-like being associated with the ghul class of djinn/jinn
The tricky Daval-pa is a Persian and Kurdish monster that appears as an old man, but with leather-like appendages for legs. The creature wraps them around their victim's back forcing them to carry the daval-pa and perform hard labor.
Al Tusi and al Qazwini claim there is a whole island of these creatures.

If you see an old man waiting by the side of the road, kneeling, and sighing dramatically, do not offer to carry him for he may be a daval-pa
Popular among medieval Muslim bestiaries was the Shadhavar, a gazelle-like creature with a horn not unlike a unicorn.

Some accounts say the horn had multiple hollow branches that play beautiful music when the wind passed through them.
Similarly, Al-mi'raj is depicted as a rabbit with a single horn. It was given as a gift to Alexander the Great after he killed a sea serpent.

They are said to be found on Jezirat al-Tennyn, or Dragon Isle in the Indian Ocean.
Karkadan is another legendary horned beast. Described as dark with scaly skin with either a curved horn or a long straight one, it was likely drawn from the Indian Rhinoceros.

It is said to be docile towards virgins and its horn has healing properties against poison.
The ferocious Siranis was a wolf-like being with twelve nostrils found in Afghanistan.

It would use the multiple holes to play mesmerizing music that would lure its prey to it and then pounce.
Afghanistan is believed to be full of such dangerous beasts, often hiding in mountains.

In particular the Azdahar live there, or massive dragon-like serpents. These wingless, but massive beasts would terrorize villages and many of them were slain by heroes.
One such Azdahar was slain by the son-in-law of Muhammad, Ali who shot it with his mighty bow. The Azdahar's body turned to rock forming a hill while from its eyes poured two streams, one from its blood and other from its tears.

The waters are reputed to have healing properties
The half-woman, half-snake Shahmaran is found in the folklore of Iran, Iraq, and Turkey. She is said to be a great healer with knowledge of herbs and medicine. Her image appears in texts as well as decorated on fabrics.
Tales of Shahmaran tell of her love for a man who she teaches all her ways, but who betrays her in the end.
Then there is the poetry-loving Anka bird said to have multiple wings while the males are multi-colored. The great birds live on the Mountain of Qaf while other legends say there is only one alive at a time.
Among the Berber people, the Adjule is a wolf-like creature that hunts in packs near the Sahara. One of its powers is that it causes its prey to turn on one another, fomenting discord before they fall upon their victims.
A similar wolf-like being is found among Yemeni folklore. They appear at the scene of murders.
Finally, there is the palis, a vampire-like creature that sneaks up on sleeping travelers in the desert and licks their feet, draining the blood out of them.

They can be warded off by salt, or by sleeping sole-to-sole
Middle Eastern folklore if full of these mythic creatures. Unlike the djinn, many are believed to be lost to legend, while others live in far off places and islands.
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