Discover and read the best of Twitter Threads about #exodus

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1. It was #Holi on 11th March 1990 when I travelled from Jammu to Delhi. I’d unfamiliar faces, smells, sights, behaviours, language&environment around me.

I was traveling but I was not on a vacation. This was the second phase in my #Exodus journey #KashmiriHindu #MyStory
2. As we neared Delhi, some people started to lower the glass windows which I found puzzling as the weather was nice and breezy. But I soon realised it when I saw water balloons bursting on the window with coloured water designing the glass temporarily.
#Memories #LostChildhood
3. This was my 1st tryst with Holi celebrations. It was celebrated in Jammu but never in #Kashmir & it seemed fascinating to me as a kid. Since Jan 1990, we like lakhs of #Hindus from Kashmir had undergone immense mental, financial&psychological turmoil due to #IslamicTerrorism
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Today I was asked to teach the origin of the Exodus myth. If there is no archaeological evidence that the Israelites were ever in Egypt (and there is none), then where did the myth come from? Well friends, let's do this! #thread #threads #exodus #teaching
And God said to Abram, “Know well that your offspring shall be strangers in a land not theirs, and they shall be enslaved and oppressed four hundred years; 14 but I will execute judgment on the nation they shall serve, and in the end they shall go free with great wealth.  /2
You'll notice here that Egypt is not mentioned by name.

There is no direct evidence that people worshipping Yahweh sojourned in ancient Egypt, let alone during the time the Exodus is believed to have happened.
The names of the reigning Egyptian kings are not given; /3
Read 42 tweets
One pretty prevalent critical view of the #Exodus narratives, proposed by Redford, but popularised by #IsraelFinkelstein, is that - though they may hold some earlier memories - they were written in the 7th century, and basically reflect the 7th c Egyptian context. Ramesses IIIsrael Finkelstein
Much could be said in response to this rather depressing claim (and has been by, e.g., Hoffmeier)

A recently finished PhD gives a bit more data relating to this question, and suggests that the Redford-Finkelstein position doesn't really fit the facts.
Ella Karev's PhD thesis examines what kinds of slavery were dominant in Egypt between 900BC and 330BC.

Google the title and you can download it for yourself:
"Slavery and Servitude in Late Period Egypt (c. 900 – 330 BC)"
Read 9 tweets
#PrivacyResearchDay C'est parti ! La CNIL accueille aujourd'hui des chercheurs internationaux pour présenter leurs travaux sur la #vieprivée et la protection des #données.
Suivez l'événement en direct en 🇬🇧 ou en 🇫🇷👉…
Suivez le thread ⬇️
La présidente de la CNIL Marie-Laure Denis accueille la communauté internationale au 1er #PrivacyResearchDay ! Des chercheurs qui travaillent et enseignent en Allemagne, Belgique, Espagne, Singapour, Suisse, Royaume-Uni, Luxembourg et France.
La CNIL utilise la #recherche de multiples façons :
👉 Lors de la rédaction de recommandations et de lignes directrices.
👉 Dans l'un des cas sur les #cookies, la CNIL s'est référée aux résultats de deux documents de recherche.
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#Smallville #Descent

Chloe searching for Brainiac across the country's power grids. Image
#Smallville #Descent

Lionel's opera CDs! On brand until the very end. Image
#Smallville #Descent

A nice look into Lionel's safe. Is that the necklace Lionel gave Martha in #Arrow? Wasn't that stolen and Green Arrow returned it though? Nice bit of continuity: Lionel was reading "Beyond Good & Evil" in #Suspect. And there is no better description of him. ImageImageImage
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The day they announced that #KashmiriPandits should leave their women behind & go from #kashmir, my family decided to flee their homeland, hidden in the back of a truck, with my sister hidden under the seat behind my father's feet for safety, quietly in the middle of the night!
As I watched the same disturbing scene in #TheKashmirFiles it shook my core as this is literally my own story! My grandmother died, waiting to return to her home, her land, her “Panun kashir “ ( my Kashmir)
This film has been like a punch in the gut for me. It's been much worse for my parents. My family is experiencing PTSD from having to relive it . This is the most imp story that took too long to be told & remember, this is yet,only a film, there is still no #justice for us.
Read 4 tweets
A thread on Kashmiri Hindu Testimonials.

"Sarla Bhat was abducted on April 15th, found dead (and violated) on April 19th"

Source : A Long Dream of Home
Compiled by @siddharthagigoo and @VaradSharma
Excerpt by Indu Bhushan Zutshi

"A bullet-ridden body covered with blood"
Sarala Bhat - Thy Nation shall not forget you.

Source : A Long Dream of Home

Shikara movie : Sabh Chenga si, Koooyi problem nahi. Love stories flourished during the exodus. Kashmir was JANNATH in 1990. “NEIGHBORS HELPED EACH OTHER”.

Source : A Long Dream of Home

Read 22 tweets
Duschinski, Haley (2014), "Community Identity of Kashmiri Hindus in the United States", Emerging Voices: Experiences of Underrepresented Asian Americans, Rutgers University Press,
#KashmirFiles #KashmiriPandits
1989 നവംബറിൽ കാശ്മീർ താഴ്‌വരയിൽ നിന്ന് കശ്മീരി ഹിന്ദുക്കളുടെ കൂട്ട കുടിയേറ്റം ആരംഭിക്കുകയും തുടർന്നുള്ള മാസങ്ങളിൽ അത് ത്വരിതപ്പെടുകയും ചെയ്തു. ഓരോ കുടുംബത്തിനും അതിന്റേതായ വിടവാങ്ങൽ കഥയുണ്ട്.1/10 #KashmirGenocide #Kashmir_Files
പല കുടുംബങ്ങളും തങ്ങളുടെ സാധനങ്ങൾ കാറുകളിൽ നിറച്ച് രാത്രിയുടെ മറവിൽ സുഹൃത്തുക്കളോടും അയൽക്കാരോടും വിടപറയാതെ പോയി.2/10 #KashmiriHindus #Exodus
Read 11 tweets
"19 Jan, 1990 - Kashmiri Pandit Exodus Day"

More than 0.5 million Hindus gone into permanent exile on/after this day and are still waiting for the justice since last 32 years.

A #thread to present glimpse of their agony in the hands of Islamic jihad.

#KashmirGenocide1990 Image
Muslims relayed war cries whole night on 19 Jan, 1990 on loudspeakers from the mosques all over Kashmir valley.

It was enough hint to the minority Hindu community that something sinister was going to happen.

Deafening sound of "Naar-e-taqbeer...", was played everywhere.
#19Jan ImageImage
These slogans made their impact:

"Azadi-eiy zalimon, eiy kafiron, Kashmir hamara chor do" - o tyrants, o infidels, leave our Kashmir.

"Assi gacchi panu'nuy Pakistan, batav rostuy, batenein saan" - we want to turn Kashmir into Pakistan, without Pandit men, but with their women. Image
Read 57 tweets
Stephen Nolan's Stonewall exposé is one of the most listened to podcasts in UK.
Stephen Nolan was warned by BBC colleagues that his "career & safety" could be at risk if he exposed Stonewall.…
"I’ve been broadcasting in Northern Ireland for 25 years with all the bullets and bombs, and I’ve had death threats. Yet really seasoned people were saying: ‘Do you really want to put yourself in the firing line on this?'"
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#Exodus 39:1-31

Making the priestly garments

This section is basically a near-verbatim fulfillment of the instructions from Exod 28, which isn’t so surprising. What’s interesting here is this repeated phrase, “as YHWH had commanded Moses,” which shows up seven times.
What makes this otherwise pretty standard phrase interesting here is that in all of the Tabernacle construction preceding this, that phrase had appeared only once - and that in the late section we just read, in the summary statement of 38:22.
Suddenly it appears after basically every subsection in this chapter - and seven times, which is a number that we’re trained as biblical readers to sit up and take notice of. (It doesn’t always mean something. But it is a semi-regular structuring device, as probably here.)
Read 5 tweets
#Exodus 38:21-31

A little accounting

It’s not that lists and numbers and adding are foreign to the priestly story - far from it - but this section seems, to my eye at least, patently a later insertion. It both interrupts and contradicts its context.
At the beginning of the construction section, the Israelites were to bring all of their materials to make all the Tabernacle stuff. But here we’re getting an accounting before they’re done - they haven’t made the priestly garments yet.
You might say, sure, but they’ve made all the stuff that uses the precious metals, so that’s why this is here. But they haven’t, actually: the priestly garments require gold too, plenty of it.
Read 8 tweets
#Exodus 37:1-38:20

Bezalel gets to work

Here we have the long description of everything that Bezalel, master craftsman, made for the Tabernacle. Which is to say, all the good stuff, basically in descending order of awesomeness. (Okay, holiness.)
He starts with the ark, which resides in the innermost sanctum; then the table and the menorah and the incense altar, which are in the chamber just outside the ark. All of these are made of gold, which signals their status and sanctity.
Then it's on to the copper stuff outside the sanctum, in the courtyard: the altar for burnt offerings and the wash basin. And here we encounter what is decidedly one of the weirdest details in the whole thing: the wash basin and its stand are made from...women's mirrors?
Read 5 tweets
#Exodus 32:1-6

The golden calf

Let’s get the story straight here:

Despite what you may have heard or read, the sin of the golden calf was not idolatry or apostasy.

Come and see.
What is it that prompts the people to make the calf? It’s not the absence of YHWH, who was never just hanging around the camp anyway. It’s the absence of Moses - without whom their access to the deity is eliminated. They don’t need a new god - YHWH hasn’t changed.
What they need is a new conduit to the deity. Specifically, they’re stuck in the middle of the wilderness and need someone, or something, to lead them through. We don’t know what happened to Moses, they say. You don’t replace Moses with a different god. They didn’t worship him.
Read 16 tweets
#Exodus 31:12-17


Why does P feel the need to put the sabbath law here? (We might actually ask why P has a sabbath law at all, if we were being cheeky, but I’ll let it slide.) But why here, in the Tabernacle blueprint section?
The rabbinic-style answer would be that here all Israel is working at building the Tabernacle, so they need to know to stop on the seventh day. Which is also why the categories of work forbidden on Shabbat are aligned with those needed to build the Tabernacle.
There’s something to that - at least, the sense that this is an all-Israel venture, and the sabbath is too, while the ritual laws to come in Leviticus are almost entirely about individuals.
Read 9 tweets
#Exodus 31:1-11


This is really just a long-ish section of YHWH telling Moses that a couple of dudes, Bezalel and Oholiab, are going to be the lead craftsmen for the Tabernacle, with help from whoever is similarly gifted. My question is: who is Bezalel?
I don’t mean in the narrative world: we get his full two-generation genealogy and his tribal affiliation, and we know what his function in the story is. I mean more like, where did he come from in the tradition?
He’s known only to P, which is sensible, since only P has the whole Tabernacle thing. But where does P get the name, the genealogy, the tribal affiliation? Is it just invented entirely? Is it some old tradition among the priests? Was the name written in graffiti on the altar?
Read 5 tweets
#Exodus 27:1-8

The sacrificial altar

For the center of activity in the Tabernacle, the altar doesn't get any special attention here - fewer verses devoted to it than to the court in the next section, for example. And there are aspects of it here that, well, don't matter much.
Why does it need to have a mesh grating? I don't know. It just does, okay? The poles and the hollowness - well, those are for carrying the thing, but they have no other function.
All of this just to say: what we're doing here is describing the objects in the Tabernacle - bringing them solidly into the mind of the reader. There's going to be chapters and chapters of what to do with them, especially with this one.
Read 4 tweets
#Exodus 26:31-37

What...the curtains?

The sacred space in the Tabernacle is marked off by the fancy curtains, made of the rarest colors - blue, crimson, and purple - and the finest weaves and designs. These are basically the doors - remember, the desert Tabernacle is a tent.
Hey remember that bit in the Ten Commandments that some people think means that you couldn’t have any images of anything anywhere in ancient Israel? Explain the depictions of the cherubs declaring the curtain in the holiest space in Israel, then. (Don’t really try, please.)
I said before that gradations of holiness in the Tabernacle are signaled by the metals used in its construction, and here’s a good example. Silver sockets for the inner curtain, copper for the outer curtain. Is it super important? No. Is it a thoughtful detail? Sure.
Read 5 tweets
#Exodus 26:1-30

The walls of the Tabernacle

Okay, it’s true - this might be the most boring material in the entire Pentateuch. And it’s Passover tonight, so let’s not get carried away with some massive thread here. Two quick points:
It somehow became a thing for people to translate the words ערת תחשים, for the upper covering of the Tabernacle, as “dolphin skin.” The skin part is right - the dolphin part is pretty unthinkable. Serious attempts have been made to defend this idea, but I just can’t buy it.
The NRSV has “fine leather” here, which is a cop-out, but which at least isn’t embarrassing. Dolphin skins - I mean, come on. In the middle of the damn desert? Just mind-boggling.
Read 6 tweets
#Exodus 25:23-30

The table

If the ark and its cover are the place where YHWH sits, the table is...well, the place where YHWH eats and drinks. Yeah, I said it.
It’s a gold table with gold drinking vessels and you’re supposed to put bread on it. Later Jewish interpretation went to great lengths to describe how the bread was to be laid out, and changed weekly, etc., but the Bible doesn’t give us any of that.
All we know is that there is supposed to be bread and wine on the table in the inner sanctum of YHWH’s dwelling place, the Tabernacle, and for sure no one else is eating and drinking in there.
Read 6 tweets
#Exodus 25:17-22

The cover for the ark

Or, if you’re being old-timey about it, the “mercy seat.” I find that translation funny - like, as if “mercy seat” is a known thing, and Moses should just make one. Hey, make a mercy seat. It’s, you know, not a thing.
The translation “mercy seat” comes from the notion that the Hebrew name, כפרת, comes from the same root that means “atone” (though the jump from there to “mercy” has a pretty goyish ring to me, I must admit). The idea would be that from here YHWH accepts atonement for sins.
But that isn’t what the text says, here or anywhere else either. P is pretty clear about what this thing is for: it’s the precise spot in the inner sanctum of the Tabernacle where YHWH physically exists, and from where YHWH speaks to Moses (cf. Exod 30:6; Num 7:89).
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#Exodus 25:10-17

The ark

Don’t get excited - this isn’t the ark of the covenant. Well, it is, sort of. But it isn’t. Let me explain (briefly).
P will never call it the ark of the covenant, because in P there’s no covenant here, and no covenant gets put inside the ark. That’s only in D, and that’s the only function of D’s ark: to hold the tablets of the Decalogue in the sanctuary.
This ark only seems like the ark of the covenant because it’s what we picture when we think of it (thanks, Indiana Jones): gold, with the poles extending out to carry the thing. Not the simple wooden box of D. (That’s the ark of a carpenter. Sorry, couldn’t resist.)
Read 8 tweets
#Exodus 25:1-9

The Tabernacle: Introduction

Welcome to the wonderful world of P, where generations fly by in just a few words, but where we can devote six chapters to the incredibly detailed instructions for building and furnishing the Tabernacle.
This stuff is dense and difficult at times and boring - but it’s also the heart of the priestly document, the necessary prerequisite for all the priestly ritual instructions and broader worldview.
And at the heart of the Tabernacle blueprint is the idea we have right here at the beginning: Israel will make a sacred place, a מקדש, and YHWH will dwell in their midst. This isn’t metaphorical - it’s as literal as it gets. The Tabernacle is YHWH’s home, and he will live there.
Read 6 tweets
#Exodus 24:15-18

Moses goes back up the mountain...twice

If we’ve been following along with the various theophanies - the visually oriented fire and smoke of J, and the auditory thunder and clouds of E - then some of what we find here is...odd.
The first line makes perfect sense in our E story. God just told Moses to go up the mountain, Moses just made plans for who would be in charge while he was gone, and here in 24:15, up he goes. And the cloud is of course good E too - this is how YHWH shows up, here and elsewhere.
Suddenly, though, it gets weird. The “presence of YHWH?” That’s a new term for God. (Not just new to this story - basically new to the entire Bible. Yes, it’s in Exodus 16, but we learned that that bit has been displaced from its original position later in Numbers, remember?)
Read 16 tweets

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