Discover and read the best of Twitter Threads about #gymtime

Most recents (24)

This one provides further evidence to the notion that that muscle growth does not contribute to the increases in strength that occur after resistance training.
- Often the presence of muscle growth is used as evidence for its causal role in improving strength.
- However, the purported paradigm that muscle growth contributes to strength change became less clear with the emergence of low-load (or no external load) resistance training...
Read 11 tweets
The findings of this one suggest that muscle fatigue per se cannot explain the loss of work efficiency during constant-load exercise above the gas exchange threshold (~50%-60% of VO2max), but muscle activation heterogeneity and metabolism can partially account for both.
- No temporal relationship between loss of work efficiency and the behaviour of muscle force production was observed.
- Loss of torque production, changes in the ratio between muscle V˙O2 kinetics and O2 delivery, a greater rating of perceived exertion, and the loss of work efficiency --mainly during very heavy exercise-- appear to share physiological mechanisms of similar origin.
Read 15 tweets
In this one, breaking up prolonged sitting with regular bouts of light intensity physical activity was associated with reductions in glucose and blood pressure in middle- and older-aged adults.
- Only sedentary breaks that were high in frequency and duration (every 30 min for 5 min) yielded statistically significant reductions in glucose relative to a control condition.
Low frequency (every 60 min) did not yield such reductions in glucose.
Read 8 tweets
Here, prolonged β2-agonist treatment at a somewhat moderate dose was associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity, plasma triglyceride concentrations, plasma amino acid concentrations, arterial blood flow velocity and increases in basal and sleeping metabolic rate.
- A two-week treatment with the selective β2-AR agonist clenbuterol enhances insulin sensitivity, mainly via increased insulin-stimulated non-oxidative glucose disposal in healthy young males.
- These beneficial effects were accompanied by increases in sleeping metabolic rate, improvements in plasma triglyceride concentrations, reductions in plasma amino acid concentrations, and increases in arterial blood flow velocity.
Read 7 tweets
The findings of this one suggest that BDNF responses to low-intensity endurance exercise are mediated by increased circulating platelets, and increasing exercise duration, and to a greater extent, intensity, is required to liberate free, unbound BDNF in circulation.
- Intermittent fasting and exercise provide neuroprotection from age-related cognitive decline.
- A link between these two seemingly distinct stressors is their capability to steer the brain away from exclusively glucose metabolism.
Read 16 tweets
This a great review from George Brooks that examines the various roles of lactate as a myokine and exerkine.
A few nice excerpts from the conclusion:
- "Certainly, lactate is not the only myokine of exerkine, but lactate has important signaling functions to be considered...
Read 8 tweets
Here, higher moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with a lower risk of incident major adverse cardiac events and all-cause mortality after accounting for the 24-hour movement composition and confounders.
"Pairwise isotemporal time substitutions estimating the risks associated with 1-4% (15-60 minutes) time change in the composition of 24-hour movement behaviors...
"...showed a significant reduction in the risk of an event when MVPA time was increased at the expense of any other behavior...
Read 5 tweets
In this one, swedish men that had high fitness at ∼18 years of age (early adulthood) had a lower prevalence of atherosclerotic plaques 40 years later (later adulthood), independent of muscle strength.
- This cohort study that followed men for approximately 40 years from early adulthood, found that exercise capacity at early adulthood was consistently associated with lower prevalence of carotid plaques at later adulthood independent of muscle strength.
- This beneficial association of exercise capacity on the presence of plaques was mediated through the combination of later, but not early, adulthood CVD risk factors.
Read 8 tweets
This systematic review and meta-analysis comes to the conclusion that HIIT is likely to be more effective than moderate intensity training for improving left-ventricular ejection fraction in heart failure patients. Image
- HIIT was found likely to be more effective than moderate intensity training for improving peak VO2 and left-ventricular ejection fraction in heart failure patients.
- HIIT was found to be more effective than moderate intensity training for improving peak VO2 and left-ventricular ejection fraction in patients with heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction.
Read 7 tweets
Although the findings of this one suggest health benefits of substituting sedentary behavior with higher levels of physical activity during a weight-loss maintenance effort, it also found that the effect of these activity substitutions on weight change is likely marginal at best.
- This prospective study included 1152 adults from the NoHoW trial who had achieved a successful weight loss of ≥5% during the 12 months prior to baseline and had BMI ≥25 kg/m2 before losing weight.
- Substitution of baseline sedentary behavior with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with a decrease in body fat percentage during the first 6 months of the trial but was not associated with 6-, 12-, or 18-month change in body weight.
Read 7 tweets
In this one, increased accumulation of visceral adipose tissue was found to be associated with lower paraspinal muscle tissue density, an indicator of fatty infiltration and a known risk factor for falls in US adults with a mean age of ~45 years.
- After adjustment for covariates, both men and women with the greatest accumulation of VAT over six years had lower paraspinal density at the follow-up.
- Even though the distributions of VAT and muscle density were different between men and women, the same inverse association was observed in men and in both pre- and post- menopausal women.
Read 4 tweets
This meta-analysis suggests that HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous training are likely to produce similar effects on overall resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with hypertension and prehypertension.
- That said, subgroup analysis based on 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring time suggested that HIIT may be superior to MICT at reducing SBP during daytime monitoring.
- Finally, HIIT was also found superior in increasing flow-mediated vasodilation in hypertensive patients
Read 4 tweets
This one in young college students suggests that exercise intensity and lactate released from the exercising muscles may be factors involved in improved cognitive function following exercise.
- HIIT was associated with superior benefits on processing speed and inhibitory control, both assessed employing the Stroop test.
- A positive association between lactate released from the exercising muscle and cognitive improvements was also found.
Read 5 tweets
In this one, both 3mg/kg and 6mg/kg doses of caffeine ingestion increased plasma catecholamine concentration and improved the average peak power output during a repeated sprint test in trained female team-sport players.
- Both doses of coffee ingestion improved the average peak power output attained by participants during the repeated sprint test compared to placebo, with no differences between doses.
- Peak and mean power output and the fatigue index did not improve during the individual sprints.
Read 4 tweets
In this one in mice, resistance exercise was found to counteract the effects of an obesogenic diet on body composition, while also being associated with improved glucose tolerance, even after exercise cessation.
- The study wanted to investigate the preventive effects of resistance exercise on body weight, gonadal fat mass, and glucose tolerance and determine whether the beneficial effects of exercise are associated with skeletal muscle strength and endurance in mice.
- Skeletal muscle strength (as measured by grip strength) and skeletal muscle endurance (as assessed by hanging time) were increased, even after exposure to an obesogenic diet for 1 week (~280 human days) after exercise discontinuation.
Read 10 tweets
This one found that a higher-intensity aerobic exercise is more likely to elicit greater increases in circulating exercines that are known for their neuroprotective effects.
- Findings showed that Cathepsin B was enriched in the circulation in an intensity dependent manner during aerobic exercise.
- Interestingly, skeletal muscle tissue was found expresses both message and protein of Cathepsin B (CTSB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), with the latter being highly expressed in glycolytic skeletal muscle fibers.
Read 4 tweets
This one found bodily pain to increase in severity with ageing, with increasing TV time at any given time point to also increase the risk of severity of bodily pain in Australian adults with and without type 2 diabetes.
- Bodily pain severity increased with age, and increasing TV time at a given time point was associated with increased severity of the bodily pain which persisted after adjustment for relevant confounders, including leisure-time physical activity and waist circumference.
- The relationships of increasing TV time with bodily pain severity at a given time point on the bodily pain trajectories were more pronounced in those with type 2 diabetes than in those without.
Read 5 tweets
In this study in children aged 10-12 years, only the energy expenditure spent through vigorous intensity physical activity was found to be inversely related to measures of fat mass. Image
- For a given energy expenditure dose measured with objective accelerometer data, the energy expenditure spent through vigorous intensity physical activity was inversely related to fat mass and abdominal fat mass index.
- Energy expenditure spent through moderate intensity physical activity was not related to fat mass and abdominal fat mass index when accounting for the energy expenditure spent through vigorous intensity physical activity.
Read 7 tweets
This narrative review explores the mechanisms of action and efficacy of caffeine and the potential for combinations of caffeine and other dietary compounds to exert psychological effects in excess of those expected following caffeine alone.
Key Points:
- Caffeine, when taken alone, is associated with reasonably consistent ergogenic and psychological benefits. However, its effects on mental performance are limited, and do not encompass benefits to several sport-relevant cognitive domains.
Read 8 tweets
This one suggests that age acceleration is associated with lower strength and/or loss of strength over time in US adults aged 51 years and older, followed over an 8-10 year period.
- "A growth in research evidence documents that epigenetic phenomena, such as DNA methylation (DNAm), are highly implicated in the development of disease and rate of biological ageing...

Ref:
doi.org/10.1186/s13059…
"...Given that methylation profiles are thought to be modifiable by lifestyle and other environmental factors, it has been proposed that DNAm age is a robust biological ageing clock providing a superior estimate of true biological age over chronological age...
Read 13 tweets
This study in Finnish twins finds that an unhealthy lifestyle during pubertal years (obesity, smoking, binge drinking, low levels of physical activity) is associated with accelerated biological aging in young adulthood.
- Both the class with the overall unhealthiest lifestyle and that with a high BMI were biologically 1.7–3.3 years older than the classes with healthier lifestyle patterns when DNAm GrimAge was used...
... and had 2–5 weeks/calendar year faster pace of biological aging when using DunedinPoAm.
Read 6 tweets
Using Mendelian randomization analysis and conventional analysis, this one finds fat mass to be causally and linearly associated with all-cause mortality, while showing that the obesity paradox found in observational analyses can be explained by high-risk lifestyle choices.
- The phenomenon where a higher BMI correlates with lower mortality risk has been called the obesity paradox.
- In order to investigate the association between fat mass and mortality and mortality not only among the whole population, but to be able to stratify in subgroups as well, the authors used six well-known lifestyle risk factors to assess high/low risk lifestyles.
Read 12 tweets
This one found serum klotho levels, a protein primarily produced by the kidney which is considered to be anti aging and its levels appear to increase with exercise, to be negatively associated with heart failure in middle-aged and older adults.
- Each 2.72 pg/ml increase in Klotho concentration decreased the risk of heart failure by 45% after controlling for potential covariates, and such a negative and significant association was also found in half of the subgroups.
"Our findings indicated that a higher serum Klotho concentration was significantly associated with a lower risk of HF in half of the subgroups...
Read 12 tweets
This umbrella review of meta-analyses found strong evidence to suggest that physically active individuals have a lower risk of developing Alzheimer's Disease and that exercise interventions exert numerous benefits on patients who already have Alzheimer's Disease. Image
- The present umbrella review found that there is strong evidence of a protective effect of regular physical activity against Alzheimer's Disease risk, with active individuals having a~ 30–40% lower risk compared with inactive individuals.
- "Although a dose–response association between physical activity volume and risk of dementia has been previously reported...

Ref:
doi.org/10.1136/bmjope…
Read 12 tweets

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