After Ali, his older son #Hassan became Caliph but Muavia killed him within 6 months.
Hassan & Hussain’s mother was the 3 yr old captured Persian princess Shahrbanu, gfted to Ali by Caliph Umar
to keep ancestry of H & H to Arabs & suppress Persian element of their ancestry,their motherhood is attributed to Fatima!
32 yr old Ali followed the footsteps of his lecherous father-in-law by taking the 3 yr old child princess, Shahrbanu as his concubine!
Ancestors of Semitic Jews also came from same ethnic tribes & lived further north in Mesopotamia.
Defeated non-Muslims were given choice of Islam/Death
Converts couldn’t renounce it, Murtads/ apostates were killed.