Discover and read the best of Twitter Threads about #TrainHard

Most recents (24)

In this one, cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be associated with a lower risk of incident Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, with the association being graded in nature so that a higher level of fitness was associated with a lower level of risk.
- The study examined the association between cardiorespiratory fitness expressed in METs and incident Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias in a large national cohort of US veterans with a mean age of 60.5 years during up to 20 years of follow-up.
- The study’s findings demonstrated an inverse, graded association between cardiorespiratory fitness and the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias regardless of sex or race.
Read 4 tweets
Using data from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease study, this one suggests that high cardiorespiratory fitness levels may attenuate the increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in individuals with elevated systolic blood pressure in men aged 42–61 years.
- The Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease study is an ongoing population-based prospective cohort study that was designed to investigate risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
- The study recruited a general population sample of 2682 men aged 42–61 years who were residents in eastern Finland.
Read 8 tweets
This one found that well-trained midlife recreational cyclists are more likely to have lower levels of fat infiltration and greater muscle mass for the two main gluteal muscles, suggesting that regular exercise may help preserve muscle health during ageing. Image
- This study aimed to examine the benefits of cycling in terms of muscle health by comparing muscle health markers of two middle-aged men groups with different lifestyles:
...a group that has adopted cycling as their main recreational physical activity and a group of physically inactive subjects.
Read 6 tweets
In this one, a higher muscle-to-fat ratio was associated with markers suggesting better cardiometabolic health, including blood pressure, serum lipids, blood glucose and serum uric acid among Chinese adults, especially in individuals with overweight or obesity. Image
- Finally, some sex/age differences were observed, with females being more likely to be affected by the muscle-to-fat ratio.
In males, muscle-to-fat ratio was more likely to affect those in the 30–39 years group.
Read 5 tweets
This one suggests that a supinated grip during the biceps curl may be superior in eliciting the greatest excitation for both biceps brachii and brachioradialis during the concentric phase of the lift.
- This study analyzed the level of excitation of the biceps brachii and brachioradialis during the ascending and descending phase of the biceps curl performed with three different handgrips (supinated, pronated, and neutral).
- Both biceps brachii and brachioradialis exhibited greater levels of excitation with the supinated compared to the pronated and neutral handgrip.
Read 7 tweets
Using accelerometer data and hierarchical cluster analysis to identify distinct activity patterns in Canadian working adults, this study found that higher physical activity patterns are associated with better cardiometabolic health profiles.
- The cardiometabolic risk markers assessed were: waist circumference, non-HDL cholesterol and systolic & diastolic blood pressure.
- Six distinct accelerometer-measured activity patterns were identified:
Read 12 tweets
In this one, mouth rinsing, regardless of the type of solution (either carbohydrate or a placebo), enhanced endurance running performance for trained runners in a warm-humid environment when compared to no rinsing.
- However, there was no ergogenic beneft of rinsing a carbohydrate solution when compared to a placebo solution.
- "The improvement in exercise performance in the mouth rinsing trials observed in this study is believed to be attributed to the reduction of perception of effort...
Read 6 tweets
The findings of this one suggest that a progressively decreasing intensity resistance training protocol from set to set can elicit a more positive effect of enjoyment within a session, leading to long term maintenance of exercise behavior, without sacrificing training load.
- The study compared the effects of an increasing intensity and a decreasing-intensity resistance training protocol on affective responses across six training sessions.
- Participants in the increasing intensity group reported an increase in feeling displeasure after each set, whereas those in the decreasing group reported increases in pleasure after every set.
Read 5 tweets
Here, an energy-dense keto-friendly energy bar consumed 3 hours before exercise was similarly effective in sustaining ∼1 hour of steady-state incline rucking under 30% of body weight load, compared with an isocaloric serving of carbohydrate energy bars.
- Recreationally active and healthy males consumed 1000 kcal derived from a novel, energy-dense (percentage energy from carbohydrate/fat/protein: 5/83/12) ketogenic bar, or isocaloric high-carbohydrate bars (CB; 61/23/16) 3ours h before a time-to-exhaustion ruck.
- The ingestion of the keto-friendly energy bar increased fat oxidation, whereas the carbohydrate energy bars increased mean carbohydrate oxidation:
Read 8 tweets
This one failed to find a reduction in nonexercise physical activity after exercise, after either a bout of resistance or aerobic exercise.
- A reduction in nonexercise physical activity after exercise may reduce the effectiveness of exercise interventions on weight loss in adults with overweight or obesity.
- The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine the effect of a single bout of aerobic or resistance exercise on nonexercise physical activity and sedentary behavior in inactive adults with overweight or obesity.
Read 7 tweets
This one suggests that both HIIT and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training can be effective in helping patients with coronary artery disease and co-morbidities to reduce adverse cardiac events risk by regulating the levels of certain inflammation-related markers.
- The objective of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory potential of moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training and high-intensity interval training in patients with CAD with or without type 2 diabetes.
- Both training modalities yielded decreases in plasma cytokine concentrations (FGF21, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-18), suggesting that the 12-week exercise interventions were sufficient to reduce chronic inflammation in these patients.
Read 6 tweets
This one suggests that a small ventricle is a key factor that contributes to low midlife cardiorespiratory fitness in women, which may explain the predisposition of some women to functional impairment, exertional breathlessness, and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Image
- In this study, in healthy women free of overt cardiovascular disease and a mean age of 51 years, ventricular size was found associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiac reserve, suggesting that small ventricle is a key factor that contributes to low midlife CRF:
A strong positive relationship between ventricular size and cardiorespiratory fitness was observed.
Read 7 tweets
The findings of this one suggest that the risk of major depressive disorder may be lowered, even among individuals with a high genetic risk, by a higher strength, as measured by grip strength.
- Individuals with low genetic risk and high grip strength had a lower incidence of major depressive disorder compared with individuals with high genetic risk and low grip strength.
- Individuals with high genetic risk and high grip strength also had a lower incidence of major depressive disorder compared with individuals with high genetic risk and low grip strength.
Read 6 tweets
This is the last part of the series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses that this group performs in an effort to synthesize the evidence that links physical activity with breast cancer risk.
This is the first part of the series, focusing on the effect of physical activity on sex steroid hormones in women:

Read 10 tweets
This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that cold water immersion is likely to benefit the acute recovery of endurance performance and longer-term recovery of muscle strength and power, although this may depend on the nature of the preceding exercise.
- Findings supported that cold water immersion is likely to best facilitate the recovery of endurance performance when the preceding exercise is endurance in nature and particularly when the preceding exercise is performed in the heat:
Findings suggested that that post-exercise cold water immersion is likely to enhance the acute recovery (i.e., 1 h) of endurance performance following exercise in warm-to-hot (26°C to 40°C) conditions...
Read 10 tweets
How accurate is the Oura Ring in estimating energy expenditure?

It can identify major changes between activities and/or intensities but is less responsive to detailed deviations within activities, this study suggests.
- This study aimed to determine the validity of Oura Ring step-count and energy expenditure against indirect calorimetry in the laboratory and a free-living setting against accelerometers and a pedometer.
- Results from the laboratory indicated that the Oura can successfully identify major changes between various activities and/or intensities with acceptable measurement error overall, but is less responsive to detailed deviations within different activities and/or intensities.
Read 5 tweets
The findings of this one suggest that, when matched for training status, females incur similar peripheral fatigue in the quadriceps and inspiratory muscles compared with males following high-intensity cycling, despite a smaller reduction in voluntary force. ImageImageImage
- When matched for training status, the endurance capacity of males and females is similar during high-intensity cycling.
Read 9 tweets
This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that the use of moderate hypoxia, and/or moderate training loads & longer inter-set rest intervals under hypoxia are likely to produce small to medium beneficial effects in resistance training outcomes.
- The aim of this paper was to perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the effect of resistance training under hypoxic conditions on muscle hypertrophy and strength development versus normoxia.
- Similar to previous studies, a simple pooled analysis without controlling for covariates did not provide compelling support for a potential benefit of resistance training under hypoxic conditions versus normoxia on muscle hypertrophy and strength development
Read 7 tweets
This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that aerobic exercise is likely to improve non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors, like CRP and adipokines (resistin, IL-6 and TNF-a), even without significant amounts of weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes. ImageImage
- Results showed a considerable amelioration in circulating levels of CRP, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-a along with significant improvement in glycemic control, but without statistically significant weight-loss at the end of most programs lasting from 8 to 54 weeks...
...with the vast majority of them ranging between 12 and 24 weeks.
Read 4 tweets
Here, osteosarcopenia was associated with an increased risk of disability and mortality among Japanese older adults.
- Disability was found associated with osteopenia, sarcopenia and osteosarcopenia.
- No statistically significant association was found between probable and confirmed sarcopenia and mortality risk.
Read 5 tweets
This review provides an update to the position stand of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN), integrating current literature on energy drinks and energy shots in exercise, sport, and medicine.
This is extremely extensive, or should I say exhaustive.

I can only include *some* of the concluding keypoints:
- Energy drinks can enhance acute aerobic exercise performance, largely influenced by the amount of caffeine (> 200 mg or >3 mg∙kg bodyweight [BW−1]) in the beverage.
Read 21 tweets
This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that even though the Range Of Motion (ROM) during resistance training appears to have at most a modest impact on musculoskeletal function and morphology, different ROMs may be appropriate for different goals.
- ROM during RT appears to have at most a modest impact on outcomes of interest (strength, muscle size, body composition, power, or sport performance proxies).
- The impact of ROM was found to be trivial to small, favoring a full or long ROM compared to partial ROM.
Read 20 tweets
This one in rats suggests that long-term exercise preserves pancreatic islet structure and β-cell mass through may directly or indirectly attenuate islet fibrosis and protects the pancreatic islets through anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic actions. Image
- After 60 weeks (~14 human years) of exercise, it was found to lead to a 68% and 45% reduction in islet fibrosis in the normal and high-fat diet groups and was correlated with a lower serum blood glucose.
- Fibrotic islets were characterized by irregular shapes and substantial loss of β-cell mass, but these were reduced in the exercise groups.
Read 5 tweets
The findings of this one suggest that plasma Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) and dicarbonyl compounds are not associated with the presence of coronary plaques, plaque characteristics or CAC scores, in middle-aged and older athletes.
- The study assessed the association of AGEs and dicarbonyl compounds with coronary atherosclerosis and plaque characteristics to evaluate whether these biomarkers can be used to screen for atherosclerosis or rupture-prone plaques in middle-aged and older athletes.
- Plasma concentrations of free AGEs, protein-bound AGEs, and dicarbonyl compounds did not correlate with the total number of coronary artery plaques or with any of the groups of predominating plaque characteristics.
Read 5 tweets

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