1/ This thread reflects on a recurring problem in discussing the history of #animalstudies, critical animal studies, & human-animal studies. It’s #misogyny. Here’s the jist: feminists & feminist ideas are devalued or ignored only to see our ideas appropriated while we disappear.
2/ This reflects on a recurring problem in animal studies. I will try later to add another thread w/ many citations of impt writings. So this is the first of more to come
3/ In Ecofeminism: Feminist Intersections with Other Animals and the Earth, @last1000chimps & I described how reflections on the development of the animal protection movement usually tell the story of its beginning w/ the publication of @PeterSinger’s Animal Liberation in 1975
4/ We described how the early #feminist concern for other #animals is generally overlooked by situating the beginning with Singer. In raising the issue of the neglect of #feminist contributions, we did not deny the impact of Singer, #TomRegan or other writers.
5/ We did indicate that this framing of the issue of animals relegated “to the background feminist relational commitments to empathy and care.” We also described how #ecofeminism was often seen as a side concern. bloomsbury.com/us/ecofeminism…
6/ Ecofeminists address the problem of value hierarchies & value dualisms such as human/animal; culture/nature. Problematically, we were mistakenly thought to maintain the masculine reason/feminine emotion dualism that mainstream animal theorists were promoting.
7/ @last1000chimps and I said that “In arguing relationally and developing a care tradition in animal ethics, #ecofeminists were challenging, not accepting, the essentializing structure of the division between men as rational and women as emotional.”
8/ In the 21st century, we have seen this mischaracterization of ecofeminism continue. It provides a way to exclude #ecofeminist work from emerging animal theory as it was being developed. Along with this, we noted the failure to credit ecofeminism’s influence.
9/ We said, “The emerging field of #AnimalStudies grows out of, at least in part, #feminist and #ecofeminist theory.” By ignoring the background and the history, the result is the disappearance of ecofeminism, while its ideas become appropriated.
10/ @EcoFeministMom discussed this #ecofeminist #backlash in “Ecofeminism Revisited: Rejecting Essentialism and Re-Placing Species in a Material Feminist Environmentalism,” genderandsecurity.org/projects-resou…
11/ Greta Gaard writes: “Current developments in allegedly new fields such as animal studies and naturalized epistemology are ‘discovering’ theoretical perspectives on interspecies relations and standpoint theory that were developed by feminists and ecofeminists decades ago.”
12/ Susan Fraiman also addressed this issue in “Pussy Panic versus Liking Animals: Tracking Gender in Animal Studies” describing the way #AnimalStudies had developed a revisionary history with an origin story locating itself in the writings of #Derrida journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/66…
13/ This origin story, Fraiman pointed out “serves to eclipse the body of animal scholarship [that she described in her essay], dozens of books going back some forty years, long before Derrida’s essay was brought to the attention of English speakers."
14/ Susan Fraiman continued, "Much of this pioneering work was by women and #feminists—a significant portion rose under the rubric of #ecofeminism—and all of it arose in dialogue with late-century liberation movements, including the second wave women’s movement.“
15/ Both Fraiman and Gaard point out the irony: how feminist and #ecofeminist insights and theory have been both discredited AND appropriated. Fraiman called this #pussypanic
16/ In 2016, I addressed the problem of emphasizing “fathers” of the movement in a guest essay for the @unboundproject, and how #ageism influences the way women in the movement are considered. unboundproject.org/visibility-his…
17/ Then in 2019 another paper appeared, “‘Pussy Panic’ and Glass Elevators: How Gender is Shaping the Field of Animal Studies” by @FProbyn, @so_s, & Yvette Watt tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.108…
18/ @FProbyn, @so_s, and Yvette Watt indicate that “Our data lend support to the idea that ‘pussy panic’ has indeed shaped the direction of the field so far.” #pussypanic #animalstudies
19/ So are the gatekeepers listening? Not if we consider Kenneth Shapiro’s “Human-Animal Studies: Remembering the Past, Celebrating the Present, Troubling the Future” appearing in Society & Animals & published by @BrillPublishing #misogyny #animalstudies
20/ He creates a four wave history, that neglects feminist writings, but introduces feminist ideas unlabelled as such as part of the fourth wave, so we get to have ideas about empathy, attention, affect, entanglement, dualisms, without ever having to bother with, much less cite,
21/ most of the feminist & ecofeminist writers who helped bring these ideas forward. All these previous waves he says prepare us to “call into question basic categorical distinctions, such as animal/human, nature/culture, & individual/group.” #ecofeminism
22/ Hmm, there is a #feminist theory that precisely delineated that DECADES AGO: #Ecofeminism. But #animalstudies has been made safe to refer to #dualisms because at least “3 waves,” if not the 4th have processed these ideas like a wash, removing the stain of women's writing.
23/ If you see yourself as a gatekeeper protecting the overinflated male legacy of #animalstudies, here are the strategies to follow:
1) Start the story with men’s writings, not women’s
2) Cite men, continually cite men. This might be obvious and you might already be doing it,
because citing men feels so right and everywhere you look this is what is done.
3) Suppress women’s writings.
4) Even when you use language indebted to the writings of feminists, don’t cite them.
25/ Follow these suggestions & you'll magnify men’s contributions, while misrepresenting the history & theory of animal studies & human-animal studies. Apparently that’s the cost writers like Ken Shapiro & the publication Society & Animals & @BrillPublishing are willing to take

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More from @_CarolJAdams

28 Sep 20
Dear @VegNews: I am shocked that you carried the statement by the authors of #ThugKitchen announcing their name change in your 2020 holiday issue without providing any context about their racist practices and cultural appropriation over the past 8 years. 1/x
#TheBeardedVegans offered a definitive two-part series on Thug Kitchen exposing this. They explain, "Matt and Michelle, the couple behind #ThugKitchen made a habit of slyly dodging their critics & employing a litany of gaslighting techniques to explain away their behavior." 2/x
You can find the first part of #TheBeardedVegans podcast here: thecommentist.com/bearded-vegans… 3/x
Read 18 tweets
26 Aug 20
"Scoop" asked, What does defacing a billboard that features #JacindaAdren w/ a dead #possum say? It says the #sexualpoliticsofmeat is alive & well in NZ. //www.scoop.co.nz/stories/HL2008/S00187/defacing-billboard-of-jacinda-ardern-with-dead-possum-what-does-it-say-about-us.htm /1
Killing animals and using them to represent hostile feelings toward women is nothing new. It's just more visible when the woman the dead animal is used against is #jacindaardern the Prime Minister of NZ. /2
Also a reminder of the status of #possums as pests in New Zealand, explored in a paper by Ally Mccrow-Young, Tobias Linné, and Annie Potts. To lower a woman's status or objectify her, use #animals that have already been "lowered" in status. researchgate.net/publication/33… /3
Read 4 tweets
24 Aug 20
Let’s take a moment to remember the #suffragists who were #vegetarian, a thread. They recognized how oppressions were connected. Some of the information is from my book, The Sexual Politics of Meat now celebrating its 30th anniversary of publication. #suffrage /1
Let’s be clear: Susan B. #Anthony was NOT a vegetarian. She was happy to get to Delmonico’s in Manhattan after staying with the #Grimke sisters, who were. She did attend a vegetarian banquet in 1853, where the toast was to “Total Abstinence, Women’s Rights, & Vegetarianism.” /2
Matilda Joslyn #Gage, a radical activist & co-editor of the 1st 3 volumes of “The History of Woman Suffrage” with Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony, was a vegetarian. She was later written out of the history for her radical views. See the work of @Swagner711 /3
Read 16 tweets
15 Aug 20
Remember the belief that meat is the best or only protein source is a #racist belief, discounting the way the majority of the cultures ate. #thesexualpoliticsofmeat #feminism #vegan /3
A #masculinity made anxious & unsettled seeks to re-establish itself by invoking #redmeat; you can find this happening at key points in US history: the rise of immigration at the end of the 19th century, after the Vietnam War, after 9/11, & during the #Trump 2016 campaign /4
The scholar #VasileStanescu discusses the work of #EMDuPuis who suggested that it was not a coincidence that colonialism, nativist union sentiment, and the decrease in the cost of meat occurred simultaneously at the end of the 19th century. #xenophobia #manhoood #meateating /5
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5 Aug 20
The podcast @NewBooksAfroAm is a great podcast. Today I learned about a new book, "The Smell of Slavery: #Olfactory #Racism and the Atlantic World," by Andrew Kettler, a new book from #CambridgeUniversityPress.
newbooksnetwork.com/andrew-kettler… /1
"Western European defined the #African subject as a scented object, appropriated as filthy to create levels of ownership through discourse that marked African peoples as unable to access spaces of Western modernity." #whitesupremacy
cambridge.org/us/academic/su… /2
African Americans used smell as #resistance during the centuries of their being held as property in the United States: for instance, putting cayenne on their feet so that dogs could not track them when they set out to claim their freedom./3
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2 Jul 20
Let's talk about this article & #fetalbovineserum. @amlamey says (parenthetically) regarding in vitro meat "Dr. Post’s first burger was grown using fetal bovine serum, a slaughterhouse byproduct; his team & others have sought out animal-free replacements." nytimes.com/2020/07/02/opi…
What in this context does "have sought out" mean? They have sought out and FOUND animal-free replacements? Or they ARE STILL SEEKING animal-free replacements. Because the difference is meaning is the difference between #meat "without murder" and meat with murder.
Many people don't realize that #pregnant #cows are killed. Killed in #slaughterhouses, killed to be in hamburgers, killed to become "meat." #FetalBovineSerum is taken from the calf the pregnant cow is carrying. Sometimes that calf is alive after the mother cow's death.
Read 7 tweets

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