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On August 15, 2017, the @IntlCrimCourt issued the first ever arrest warrant entirely based on social media evidence. icc-cpi.int/CourtRecords/C…
The charges accuse Al-Werfalli (alleged Al-Saiqa Brigade commander) of mass executions in/near Benghazi, #Libya, during Operation Dignity.
Based on 7 incidents shown in 7 social media videos, Al-Werfalli is charged with murder as war crime under Art. 8(2)(c)(i) of Rome Statute.
The use of social media evidence is significant, @EIrvingNL writes → aligns ICC with realities of today’s conflicts. opiniojuris.org/2017/08/17/and…
Therefore, groups like @Bellingcat, which conduct weekly open source investigations, follow developments closely.
The @Syrian_Archive is even entirely devoted to preserving open source evidence of potential human rights violations syrianarchive.org
However, there are potential perils to the promise of open source evidence, such as verification and weight of the evidence, as @EIrvingNL.
In 'Open Source Evidence on Trial', @lawrightstech discusses challenges (and importance!) of open source evidence. yalelawjournal.org/forum/open-sou…
In many of today's conflicts, like Syria and Yemen, open source evidence is abound. Perpetrators (e.g. IS) often post material themselves.
The Werfalli case is only start of "long, and likely complex, relationship between open source evidence and international criminal justice."
.@Bellingcat is crowdsourcing the geolocation of the seven videos on which the ICC arrest warrant is based. bellingcat.com/news/mena/2017…
That was fast: Incident Four has been geolocated.
We have possible hints for the location of Incident Five: near Camp Thunderbolt. See @checkdesk for more: checkmedia.org/bellingcat/pro…
The location of the Incident Five execution has been found (indeed near Camp Thunderbolt).
Here are some visual clues for Incident One, likely to be an orchard somewhere in/near the Qawarishah suburb. checkmedia.org/bellingcat/pro…
Another visual clue is an electricity pylon. You can download a kmz-file of Benghazi's electricity network here: goo.gl/9qVrNH.
The execution site of Incident One has been geolocated too, by Bellingcat's @daniel_b_cat: 32.014444, 20.113928.
Werfalli was allegedly in Ajdabiya (أجدابيا), #Libya, last night, photos posted to social media appear to show.
Five individuals have allegedly been executed in Adjabiya, #Libya, while Werfalli — wanted by the ICC — was in town.
The alleged executions took place during daylight at a roundabout in the northwestern part of Adjabiya, #Libya.
While Werfalli is supposed to be in LNA custody, he appears to freely roam around in Adjabiya. Coverage @libyaherald archive.is/5UYWG
We've geolocated a fourth Werfalli execution site (Incident Seven) in Benghazi, #Libya. bellingcat.com/news/mena/2017…
A macabre detail: the blood stains of the executed individuals are visible on satellite imagery.
We geolocated another Werfalli execution site in Libya. Macabre detail: blood stains are visible on satellite image. bellingcat.com/news/mena/2017…
For the first time, Syrian military member has been convicted (in #Sweden) of a war crime (violating human dignity). nytimes.com/2017/10/03/wor…
In a video posted online on Tuesday evening, Mahmoud Werfalli, an alleged commander of the Saiqa Brigade who is wanted by the International Criminal Court for war crimes, announces that he will hand himself over to police following orders of Khalifa Haftar, the leader of the LNA.
Werfalli handing himself in is a big surprise: not even two weeks ago, he was seen in photo and video footage murdering ten individuals in Benghazi, Libya — seemingly not caring AT ALL about the ICC arrest warrant.
Supporters of Werfalli were reportedly protesting the ICC arrest warrant in the streets of Benghazi, #Libya, on Monday and Tuesday. (H/t @tomfeneux, .)
Now on Bellingcat: a simple open source survey of the recent developments regarding Werfalli (he has reportedly been released). “What Werfalli Did — Haftar’s Commander Continues Executions in Defiance of ICC Arrest Warrant” bellingcat.com/news/mena/2018…
Werfalli — wanted by the ICC — cuts a cake while his supporters reportedly threw a party to celebrate his release, a video published by @Lyobserver shows. Some claim that Werfalli was released following threats to Haftar from the "Makhadda" militia. H/t @ckoettl.
"Werfalli’s relevance as a leader of the most powerful Salafi brigade under the LNA makes him an indispensable asset to Haftar", @erinaneale and @yousufeltagouri write in @ACmideast. #WerfalliWatch atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/menasour…
Interpol (@INTERPOL_HQ) has issued a red notice for Mr Werfalli on charges of 7 counts of murder as a war crime. #WerfalliWatch interpol.int/notice/search/…
#WerfalliWatch: LNA's Haftar threatens not to pay salaries to the Saiqa Brigade unless they hand over 150 fighters that objected his decision to to arrest Werfalli and sack Wanis Bu Khamada, @ALNABAA_EN claims. alnabaa.tv/en/news/view/1…
In a Facebook post, the LNA's Saiqa Brigade announced they have started their own radio show (facebook.com/permalink.php?…). This may hint towards mounting divisions within #Libya's Haftar-aligned forces, as @nkvest_22 suggests (). #WerfalliWatch
#WerfalliWatch: Uncertainty over the status of Mahmoud Werfalli, who is wanted by the International Criminal Court, has opened a rift between military leaders who detained him for questioning, and fighters who staged protests to force his release. reuters.com/article/us-lib…
#WerfalliWatch: Werfalli handed himself in on Feb. 6, 2 weeks after shooting 10 prisoners. He was released the same night, before returning to Rajma where he has stayed for the past weeks as military police investigate him, military sources tell @Reuters.
#WerfalliWatch: Werfalli was released on bail after the first part of the investigation. He would not be handed over to the ICC, LNA spokesperson Ahmed al-Mismari said, because of the “integrity and strictness” of the #Libya|n justice system. (Via @Reuters.)
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