Discover and read the best of Twitter Threads about #ph

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#TodayinHistory in 1899, Gen. Gregorio del Pilar & 60 Filipino troops made their last stand at Tirad Pass, Ilocos Sur vs. 300 US soldiers in a last ditch effort to delay the American pursuit of #PH Pres. Emilio Aguinaldo. Del Pilar was killed in action, at 24 yrs old.

THREAD
Gregorio del Pilar was one of the youngest generals of the PH revolutionary army. He was the propagandist Marcelo H. Del Pilar's nephew. The abuses inflicted by the Spanish colonial gov on his family pushed him to join the Philippine Revolution at his young age.
Born in 14 Nov 1875 to couple Fernando H. del Pilar & Felipa Sempio in San Jose, Bulacan, "Goyo" studied in the Ateneo Municipal (now @ateneodemanilau) while staying w/ Deodato Arellano, husband to his aunt Hilaria del Pilar. He helped Arellano distribute reformist fliers.
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#TodayinHistory in 1870, Jose Alejandrino (José Cándido Alejandrino y Magdangal), Filipino revolutionary general, writer, diplomat for the 1st #PH Republic, & framer of the 1899 & 1935 PH constitutions, was born in Arayat, Pampanga.

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#history #kasaysayan Image
Born to a well-to-do family, Alejandrino was enrolled in the Ateneo de Municipal (now @ateneodemanilau), garnered his Bachelor of Arts in @UST1611official, & continued his studies in Spain. While in Spain, he became one of the writers of La Solidaridad...
...& was an activist for the Propaganda Movement, campaigning for Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes. Alejandrino was instrumental in copyediting the manuscript of his friend, Rizal's "El filibusterismo" before it was published in Ghent in 1891.
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#TodayinHistory in 1863, Andrés Bonifacio y de Castro, revolutionary leader & 3rd president of the revolutionary org, the #Katipunan, was born in Tondo, #Manila, #PH. Under his leadership, the Katipunan led an all-out revolution vs. Spain beginning Aug 1896. THREAD. #kasaysayan Image
Born to Santiago Bonifacio and Catalina de Castro, a tailor & a housewife, Andres was born to a poor family, & eldest of his siblings—Ciriaco, Procopio, Espiridiona, Troadio, & Maxima. Upon the death of their parents, Andres stood as breadwinner for the family.
First selling canes and paper fans, & juggling several jobs, Andres Bonifacio was employed as clerk & liaison for the British company Fleming & Co in Manila. He eventually became an agent of the company, but soon decided to switch to the German company, Fressel & Co. Image
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#TodayinHistory in 1848, Trinidad Tecson, the fierce Filipina revolutionary leader & an #Eskrima fighter, was born in San Miguel de Mayumo (now San Miguel), Bulacan #PH. A veteran in combat, she joined the Katipunan in 1895 & fought in the PH Revolution & Phil-Am War.

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Born as the daughter of the wealthy couple Rafael Tecson & Monica Perez, she was educated under the tutelage of a certain teacher of her town named Quintino. During her younger years, Bulacan had many bandits, so she trained on Eskrima under eskrimador Juan Zeto.
So good was her skill in combat that at one time, at night, a stranger trespassed at their farm. She took a bolo and hit the trespasser on the head. The man went away bleeding. Another incident was when an alferez who asked for her hand in marriage but was rejected sent...
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#TodayinHistory in 1869, the Suez Canal opened, enabling #PH to have faster exchange of info & gain direct economic relations w/ Spain w/c used to be via Mexico. It shortened travel time bet PH & Spain for passenger & cargo transport from approx 2 mo. to 30 days. THREAD. #History Image
The opening of the Suez Canal brought liberal ideas faster to PH w/c would be the seed of the #PH Revolution of 1896. Prior to this, Spain was embroiled in revolutions & civil wars, beginning w/ the drafting of the historic Spanish Constitution of Cadiz in 1812. Image
The consti instituted that all in Spanish Empire (including inhabitants of #PH) were Spaniards entitled to representation in the Cortes (legislature). The consti would soon be rescinded, plunging Spain into civil war. These events divided Spain into liberals vs. absolutists. Image
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#TodayinHistory in 1890, Elpidio Quirino, the 6th President of the #Philippines, was born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur #PH. While his admin after #WWII was challenged by agrarian unrest, he sought to restore the public's trust in government. THREAD. #kasaysayan #history Image
Born as the 3rd child of Don Mariano Quebral Quirino & Doña Gregoria Mendoza Rivera, he was born in prison premises, as his father then served as warden of the Vigan town jail 6 years before #PH Revolution erupted.
He worked as tutor, then as clerk in the #PH Constabulary, while completing his secondary education. He entered UP College of Law and passed the Bar in 1916. He tried campaigning for a seat in the House of Representatives in 1919 & won as rep for Ilocos Sur's 1st District.
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#TodayinHistory in 1972, Martial Law in #PH began. TV screens were on static. Long distance calls were severed. Arrests were made from midnight to dawn. From morning to evening, panic ensued. Then at 7:15 pm, Ferdinand Marcos appeared on live TV announcing Martial Law.

THREAD.
A day prior, at arnd 8pm, a staged ambush on Enrile's convoy was set-up to become the pretext for Martial Law. Prior to this, bombings have been staged in diff parts of Metro Manila. After the ambush, the military was deployed at 9pm to begin arrests.
At 12:10 am, the 1st to be arrested was Sen. Ninoy Aquino. He was taken from the Manila Hilton Hotel by a truckload of soldiers/

At 12:30 am, PH Army took over MERALCO.

Sometime bet. 1:00 to 3:00 am, Sen. Jose W. Diokno was arrested at his home in Roxas Blvd, Manila.
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#TodayinHistory in 1972, at 8:00 pm, at Notre Dame St., Wack-Wack, Greenhills #PH, the staged ambush on Defense Sec Juan Ponce Enrile's convoy was implemented—one of the pretexts of Ferdinand Marcos' declaration of Martial Law in the Philippines. THREAD #NeverAgain
#OnThisDay at 5pm, Enrile meets w/ Brig. Gen. Mario Espina of the #PH Constabulary, to plan the military movement in Metro Manila w/out raising any alarm.

At 6pm, Marcos called on Enrile. Enrile received 3 sealed envelopes: Procl. No. 1081, Gen. Orders, & Letters of Instruction
At 7 pm, Enrile went to the AFP GHQ & echoed Marcos' orders to military commanders.

At 8pm, Enrile claims that a speeding car overtook his convoy & fired several bullets, while they were passing through Wack-Wack subdivision, in Greenhills, San Juan.
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On September 21, 1972, #PH #democracy was still functioning.

Martial Law (Proc. No. 1081, w/ Gen. Orders, Letters of Instruction, etc) may have been postdated to Sept. 21 but that doesn't mean it came into effect on that day. That is a Marcosian LIE.

THREAD. #NeverAgain
#OnThisDay in 1972, there was a huge rally held at Plaza Miranda, Quiapo led by the Movement for Concerned Citizens for Civil Liberties. Headed by Sen. Jose W. Diokno & the National Press Club, it grew to 30,000 the next day.
At the same time, Congress was holding its last session in Congress before adjournment. And this was key to why Marcos chose September 21 as the date of the declaration of Martial Law.
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#TodayinHistory in 1763, Maria Josefa Gabriela Cariño de Silang or Gabriela Silang, general of the Ilocano revolt vs. Spain, was executed by hanging, after mounting a revolt that threatened the Spanish hold on the entire #Ilocos region.

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#PH #kasaysayan
Born on 19 March 1731, in Caniogan, Santa, in Ilocos Sur, she was raised by Fray Tomas Millan, assured of ample education & religion. At 20 yrs old, she was forced to marry a wealthy man who died 3 years after, leaving her w/ his wealth.
A widow that she was, she got acquainted w/ Diego Silang, a courier of the Spanish gov, who courted her for 5 yrs until they were married in 1757. Diego's travels across Luzon opened his eyes to the unfair taxation, & forced labor imposed on Filipinos.
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#TodayinHistory in 1899, the Kiram-Bates Treaty was signed, promising mutual peace bet. the Sultanate of Sulu & the United States. The treaty was initiated by US forces in #PH only to buy time for full American engagement in the Philippine-American War.
THREAD. #kasaysayan
Fresh from the acquisition of its newest possessions—all the Spanish Pacific colonies, #PH included—the U.S. intended to enforce its control on PH by militarizing it until all resistance cease. This, despite efforts of 1st PH Republic to be recognized.
W/ the outbreak of the Philippine-American War in Feb 1899, the U.S. had its hands full. It could not afford another conflict w/ the Islamized ethnic groups in Mindanao, as the PH-US war, while tagged as "insurrection," was indeed nationwide in scale.
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#TodayinHistory in 1878, Manuel L. Quezon, 2nd #PH President, & 1st President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, was born in Baler, Tayabas (now, part of Aurora). He was the leading campaigner for #PH independence from the U.S. in early 20th century.
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#Kasaysayan
Quezon was half Spanish (His father, Lucio Quezon, was a Spanish sergeant). He joined Emilio Aguinaldo in the #PH Revolution vs. Spain & #PH-US War, & had the rank of Major. In 1901 he was given the task to confirm if Aguinaldo was indeed captured in 1901.
Seeing the capitulation of the republic he fought for he laid down his arms. But like his other contemporaries, Quezon brought the independence campaign from the battlefield to politics. Under the US regime, he finished law in @UST1611official (1903), became Councilor...
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#TodayInHistory in 2012, #PH Interior Sec. Jesse Robredo, w/ 3 passengers, perished when their plane, a Piper Seneca light aircraft, crashed at sea, 1.1 km off Masbate airport. He was an award-winning statesman, & late husband of VP @lenirobredo. THREAD. ImageImage
After EDSA Revolution, optimism was high & many well-meaning citizens joined the gov bureaucracy to rebuild #PH from the stagnation & impunity of the Marcos dictatorship. One of them was Jesse, who was Bicol River Basin Dev't Program Director in 1986.
Robredo was elected in 1988 as Mayor of Naga City, the youngest mayor in #PH #history, serving at age 29. He was elected for 6 terms, spanning 19 years of service (1988-1998, & 2001-2010). He set policies that hit patronage politics at its heart—promoting officials based on merit
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#TodayinHistory in 1974, the Philippines hosted the Miss Universe beauty pageant for the first time, the first international event held in the newly built Folk Arts Theater in Manila, which only opened seven days prior. THREAD.
Since 1966, prior to the declaration of Martial Law, Pres. Ferdinand Marcos & First Lady Imelda Marcos earned strong criticism from SenatePH & people for having an "edifice complex," that is, pouring public funds on infrastructure at the expense of other more pressing priorities.
Much of these infrastructure, especially during the dictatorship (from 1972 to 1986), were funded largely by foreign loans, w/ most earnings & US war reparations received diverted to cronies of the regime. These incurred debts had to be shouldered by the next admins.
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#TodayinHistory in 2016, after taking China to court, the Philippines won its case in the Permanent Court of Arbitration, when PCA declared China's #9dashline illegal and invalid. It was a historic victory not only for #PH but for all of the world's coastal states. THREAD. Image
The @PCA_CPA is the world's oldest intergovernmental org (1899) based in The Hague, Netherlands, tasked to settle disputes bet states. When @UN Convention on the Law of the Sea was entered into by 119 states (incl #PH & China) in 1982, it entitled archipelagic states their own... Image
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), wherein the coastal state has sole exploitation rights over natural resources 370 km from its baseline to the sea. Since the UNCLOS went into force in 1994, 167 states have signed this Charter of the Sea.
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#TodayinHistory in 1898, Emilio Aguinaldo, upon A. Mabini's advice, issued a decree transforming the "Gobierno Dictatorial" into a "Gobierno Revolucionario," & his position "Dictador" into "Presidente." This was to set the stage for people's representation in #PH gov. THREAD.
On 12 June 1898, to boost the morale of the Filipino revolutionary troops, #PH independence from Spain was proclaimed, at Kawit, Cavite. Apolinario Mabini arrived on the same date, offering his services as adviser to Aguinaldo.
Mabini urged Aguinaldo of the need for people's representation in the creation of a Filipino government. Note that the independence proclamation was initiated by revolutionary generals whose position was mainly by appointment & not by the elective voice of the people.
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#TodayinHistory in 1920, Jovito Salonga, democracy leader, lawyer, & Senate President, was born in Pasig City #PH. Beyond his sterling achievements as opposition leader during the Marcos dictatorship, his was a life devoted to his Protestant faith, justice, & freedom. THREAD. Image
Born to a poor family, the youngest of the 5 children, Salonga's father, Esteban Salonga, was a Presbyterian pastor & his mother, Bernardita Reyes, a vendor. He studied in @UPCollegeofLaw, but had to postpone his Bar exam when Japan invaded #PH in 1941.
Salonga joined the Filipino guerrilla underground but was captured in 1942. He was sentenced by the Japanese to 15 years in forced labor, but this was cut short when he was pardoned in Feb 1943 on the occasion of Kigen Setsu (Japan's Foundation Day).
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#TodayinHistory in 1948, #PH President Elpidio Quirino brokered an agreement w/ Hukbalahap rebel leader Luis Taruc for the first time. The negotiations, however, would eventually collapse 2 months later. Coincidentally, the date was also Taruc's birthday. THREAD #history ImageImage
W/ the agrarian inequalities that have plagued Central Luzon (the "rice basket" of #PH), a colonial legacy that had since exacerbated, unrest had been brewing since the #PH Commonwealth. One of the signs of this was the Sakdalista Uprising in 1935.
Luis Taruc, born #onthisday in 1913, became a member & group leader in the Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas (PKP). He eventually ran into conflict w/ the Quezon admin, & was imprisoned thrice for his open campaign for farmers'/workers' rights.
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@PinoyAkoBlog Ok. Wow. Where do I begin?

Re: Austronesian migration (Out-of-Taiwan model by Peter Bellwood), that's just 1 of the major diffusionist theories on the peopling of #PH. There's also the Wilhelm Solheim III model that proposed migration came from southeast of Southeast Asia. 1/
@PinoyAkoBlog Then there's the F. Landa Jocano model disagreeing w/ diffusionist models, but instead proposing an internal devt in the region. All these model theories are based on what we could gather from archaeological excavations, genetics, & ethnolinguistic cultural traces. 2/
@PinoyAkoBlog The thing abt the origins or the peopling of #PH is that these theories are a work in progress, bec we know so little of that period, except for what the inhabitants of the period left behind—tools, pots, remains. What I find problematic here is the nationalist-racial framing. 3/
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#TodayinHistory in 1937, 572,130 Filipina women voters trooped to the polls in a national plebiscite to vote in favor for/against women's suffrage. 447,725 voted in favor of it, making #PH one of the 1st countries in Southeast Asia to give women the right to vote. THREAD. Image
Women's suffrage in #PH was an uphill battle, led by Filipino feminist activists from early 20th century onwards. Although Filipina women were granted command during PH-American War, they were not given space in halls of power where decisions were made.
Rosa Sevilla de Alvero was one of the early voices for women, advocating for women's invaluable role, via Antonio Luna's newspaper, La Independencia from 1898 onwards, & eventually establishing Instituto de Mujeres, a girls' school, in Tondo, in 1900.
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#TodayinHistory in 1894, Paz Márquez-Benítez, author of the very first #Filipino #shortstory in English, was born in Lucena City, Tayabas (now Quezon Province). She was a women's rights advocate, beauty queen, & a founder of #PH Women's University. THREAD. #WomensHistoryMonth
Born to the couple Gregorio Marquez & Maria Jurado, both educators, the Marquezes were a prominent family in Tayabas. She inherited from them a passion for learning, entering Tayabas High School (now Quezon National High School) at the young age of 9.
Living at the turn of the 20th c. when #PH was ceded to the U.S., Paz was part of 1st gen of Filipinos educated in the ways & inclinations of America. Her Spanish became "ceremonial," Tagalog "utilitarian", w/ English becoming "the language of her heart."
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#TodayinHistory in 1847, Cayetano Arellano, first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, was born in Udyong (now Orion), Bataan, #PH. He set the foundation for the PH judiciary. THREAD.
Born to Don Servando Arellano, a Spaniard, & Crisfora Lonzon of Bataan, Cayetano Arellano was a working student in his early years, finishing primary & secondary educ in @LetranOfficial, after w/c he finished Philosophy (1862), Theology (1867) & Laws (1876) at @UST1611official.
Arellano became instructor at the UST teaching Civil Law. Soon, he served as member ("regidor") of the council of the City of Manila (#Intramuros) from 1887 to 1889. He was soon appointed by the colonial gov as Magistrado Suplente of the Audiencia Territorial de Manila.
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#TodayinHistory in 1899, amidst months of tension bet Filipino & American forces, the Philippine-American War broke out when U.S. Pvt. William Grayson fired on Filipino sentries at 8pm without provocation at Blockhouse 7 (now Sociego cor. Silencio Sts. Sampaloc, Manila) . THREAD.
Adviser & 1st head of Pres. Emilio Aguinaldo's cabinet, Apolinario Mabini, have long been suspicious of the hidden intentions of U.S. presence in #PH upon Aguinaldo's Philippine independence proclamation on 12 June 1898.
All suspicions were confirmed when, upon Spanish defeat in Manila Bay & subsequent surrender of Intramuros in Aug 1898, Filipinos were prohibited by the Americans to enter & take the city. #PH revo gov moved its capital to Malolos as more US troops arrived
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#TodayinHistory in 1945, the Battle of Manila began bet. the Imperial Japanese forces & the combined U.S. & #PH guerrilla forces. Approx 100,000 civilians perished, w/ architectural wonders reduced to rubble. #Manila became the 2nd most destroyed Allied capital in #WWII. THREAD.
In 1941, Japan invaded Southeast Asia, establishing supply lines stretching from Indonesia, PH, to Japan, to bolster its imperial expansion. #PH would be under Japanese occupation until 1945.
The top leadership of the #PH Commonwealth, the 10-yr transitional gov to independence from the U.S., were whisked away to safety to Australia & then to the U.S. Soon, Pres. Manuel Quezon tirelessly pushed the U.S. to help liberate PH. He died in 1944.
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