Discover and read the best of Twitter Threads about #TodayinHistory

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#TodayInHistory Lala Lajpat Rai passes away from the wounds he received after being brutally lathicharged in 1928. One of the Lal-Bal-Pal trio, founder of DAV, a towering icon of the freedom struggle, an inspiration to other nationalists, a man who stood up for Hindus.
Lala Lajpat Rai, was born to an Urdu teacher, Lala Radha Kishan and Gulab Devi , in a tiny village called Dhudika, in the Ferozepur district of Punjab, on the 28th of January, 1865. Into a family that valued, freedom and self-respect, values he imbibed growing up.
Growing up amidst poverty, Lajpat Rai, nevertheless managed to complete his education, studying law at Govt. College, Lahore. The stint at Lahore’s Govt College, was what shaped his value system too.
Read 48 tweets
#TodayInHistory Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj kills Afzal Khan, and routs the Adil Shahi forces at the epic battle of Pratapgarh in 1659, a victory that would lay the foundation of the Maratha empire. A date for posterity.
#JaiBhavani #JaiShivaji
Pratapgarh, the fort that started Shivaji Maharaj’s victory quest, located in Satara district, aroud 23 km west of Mahabaleshwar. Standing 1080 metres above sea level, on a narrow spur between the villages of Par and Kinesvar.
The fort was was constructed by Shivaji’s Prime Minister Moropant Pingle. The upper half of the fort, is roughly square, 180 m long on either side, and has a temple dedicated to Mahadev. The lower fort is around 320 m long, 110m wide, at southeast of the fort
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#TodayInHistory Major Somnath Sharma, the first Param Vir Chakra recipient ,would go down in one of the most famous last stands in history protecting the Srinagar airfield from Pakistani raiders during the 1947 War. A true hero.
Major Somnath Sharma, born in the Kangra valley of Himachal Pradesh in 1923, came from a family with a military background. His father Major General Amarnath Sharma, was the first director general of Armed Medical Services post Independence.
Growing up with his grandfather Pandit Daulat Ram, he would often listen to the Gita and Krishna’s teaching to Arjun influenced him a lot. His maternal uncle Capt. Krishna Dutt Vasudev, had earlier died in WWII, defending a bridge in Malaya from the Japanese which influenced him
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#TodayInHistory Veera Pandya Kattabomman, legendary freedom fighter from TN, was hanged to death by the British from a tamarind tree at Kayathar in 1799. A revolutionary who shook the British with his defiance. A legend in his own right.
Tamil Nadu's Southern part called Pandya Nadu, is known for the valor of it's people, and their resistance to the invaders, be it the Muslim rulers or British later. Land of the Pandyas, some of TN's greatest freedom fighters were from here- Bharatiyar, VOC Pillai, Siva.
Panchalankurichi is a small village located in Tamil Nadu’s Thoothukudi district. It gets it’s name from the fact that 5 Pandya chieftains or Pancha Pandyas put up a brave resistance against the Madurai Nayaks in a valley( Kurichi) nearby.
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#TodayInHistory The British Govt in India passes the Criminal Tribes Act in 1871, one of the most discriminatory pieces of legislation ever, that at one stroke of the pen, rendered whole communities as criminal.
The Criminal Tribes Act was first applied in North India, then to Bengal in 1876, and later to Madras Presidency in 1911. And by 1924 it was applied to all of India. Basically the Act created settlements for the particular "criminal tribe", where they were restricted to.
Under the CTA, certain ethnic communities were defined as prone to criminal activities, their movements were restricted, their adult males had to report to police every week. And at the time of Independence in 1947, there were 13 million people in 127 such communities.
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#TodayInHistory Operation Polo begins in 1948, an operation that ensured Hyderabad would not become another Kashmir. This thread is more a backdrop to the event, and the history behind it.
Operation Polo.
The police action that integrated Hyderabad with India, bought an end to the Nizam's rule . The Nizam of Hyderabad then the world's richest man, had refused to sign the Instrument of Accession in 1948
The Nizam's original idea, was for Hyderabad State to be an independent constitutional monarchy within the Commonwealth. Mountbatten advised Sardar Patel initially to resolve the issue of Hyderabad, without resorting to force, and through negotiations.
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#TodayInHistory The epic battle of Saragarhi takes place in 1897 when 21 Sikhs, held off a much larger invading Afghan force in one of the greatest last man stands in history. This thread is more a look at the background, and events leading to it.
To understand the significance of Saragarhi, one needs to take a look at the backdrop. The Afridi tribe had a deal with the British to protect the strategically important Khyber Pass for 16 years, who in turn created a local regiment composed of the Afridis entirely.
However the Afridi tribesmen, turned against the British, and began to capture all the outposts in the Khyber, espeically on the Samana Range near Peshawar. Saragarhi was one of the posts, here, manned by the Sikhs. The British started the Tirah campaign in response.
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#TodayInHistory Allauddin Khilji captures Chittorgarh in 1303, leading to the Jauhar of Rani Padmini. This thread though is more on what happened after fall of Chittorgarh, which incidentally led to Mewar's most glorious phase, the rise of the great Ranas.
Rana Hammir in a way began the next phase of Rajput rule of Mewar with Chittorgarh as the capital that started in 1326 and ended in 1568, when Rana Udai Singh II, had to flee after Akbar occupied the fort.
Hammir’s ancestor was Laksha Singh, a very distant clan relative of Rawal Ratan Singh, who fought during the siege of Chittorgarh by Allauddin Khilji in 1303.
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#TodayInHistory Madan Lal Dhingra, close associate of Veer Savarkar is hanged to death in 1909 at Pentonville Prison, London for the assasination of Curzon Wylie. Another hero who gave up his life for our freedom, and who has not really received his due.
As the British cracked down, more ruthlessly on the revolutionaries in India and England, the anger against their atrocities grew more. It kept growing till the boiling point had been reached, and the time was ripe for an outbreak.
All it needed was one single spark to light the flame. And that spark came in the form of a strapping young land from Punjab, Madan Lal Dhingra. Hailing from Amritsar, the sixth born of the city’s Civil Surgeon, two of his brothers were doctors, while two other were barristers.
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#TodayInHistory Khudiram Bose, one of the youngest martyrs in the history of India's freedom struggle, is hanged to death at just 19 years of age. His hanging ignited the nation's fury against the British rule, inspired many a revolutionary.
Khudiram Bose, was born on December 3, 1889 in a small village, Habibpur near Midnapore. His father Trailokyanath Basu was the revenue agent for Nadazol province, and Khudiram was the 4th son in a family of 3 daughters.
As he was the only son, two others dying in infancy, his mother Lakshmipriya Devi, as per the prevailing custom, symbolically sold him to her eldest daughter Apurupa for 3 handfuls of “Khud” or foodgrain.
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#TodayInHistory The coronation of Sri Krishna Deva Raya one of the greatest emperors in Indian history, takes place in 1509. Though as per HIndu calendar it was on a Krishnashtami, according to most accounts, while some state it was somewhere in April.
Again much like the origin of Harihara and Bukka Raya, there are conflicting versions of Sri Krishna Deva Raya's ascent to throne, some stating it to be in April, but most agree it was on Krishnashtami, so going as per that.
What is undisputable is that Sri Krishna Deva Raya, was the greatest of the Vijayanagar rulers, under whose reign Vijayanagara attained greatest heights. His reign was marked by military conquests, patronage of arts and culture and flourishing of literature.
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#TodayinHistory Kamala Sohonie (14 Sep 1912 – 28 June 1998) was a pioneering Indian biochemist who in 1939 became the first Indian woman to receive a PhD in a scientific discipline.

She studied at Bombay University, IISc and Cambridge.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamala_So…

@PrinSciAdvGoI
Kamala Sohonie's acceptance into and work at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, paved the way for women to be accepted into the institution for the first time in it its history.
"...her application (to IISc) was (originally) turned down by the then-Director Prof. C V Raman on the grounds that women were not considered competent enough to pursue research.[2] Kamala responded to the rejection by holding a 'satyagraha' outside Prof. C V Raman's office..."
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#TodayInHistory The first Indian immigrants to Trinidad and Tobago arrive in 1845, on the Fatel Razack, creating the Indian diaspora there. Most of them laborers bought to work on the large sugarcane plantations there owned by British.
Ironically it was the abolition of slavery that bought Indians to Trinidad and Tobago as indentured labor. Basically the sugarcane plantations were faced with a shortage of labor, to make up for it, the British came up with a system of indentured labor.
While there were Chinese too, the majority of the indentured labor bought to Trinidad and Tobago, were primarily Indians, and this period from 1845 to 1917, saw around 147,000 Indians being bought to work on the sugarcane plantations.
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#TodayInHistory The Battle of Vasai concludes with the Maratha victory over the Portuguese in 1739. One of the most decisive victories of the Baji Rao era, one in which his brother Chimaji Appa played the major role along with Malhar Rao Holkar.
Battle of Vasai ensured the Portuguese had to leave the entire Konkan area, and restricted to a tiny enclave in Goa, it was one of the most decisive routes inflicted on them ever. And gave the Marathas full control over the Konkan coast.
While Baji Rao and his military exploits are fairly well known, not much is known about his equally capable brother Chimaji Appa, a great warrior in his own right, who played a major role in his campaigns. The victory at Vasai though would be his crowning glory.
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#TodayInHistory The Battle of Mactan was fought on the island of Cebu in Phillipines, where the Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan was killed by the native chief Lapu- Lapu. Reason why this event is significant, is that it takes a look at the Spanish colonization here.
The Battle of Mactan, is significant in that it represents a significant challenge to the Spanish colonization and evangelism in The Phillipines, that has not been given due importance in most history books in West predictably.
The battle fought at Mactan against Magellan and his troops, was not just a revolt against Spanish colonialism, it was also agains the evangelism, conversions to Christianity that slowly destroyed the native culture of the Phillipines.
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#TodayInHistory Robert Noyce gets the patent for Integrated Circuit in 1961, a very signficant event in Tech History, that would fuel the PC revolution and also lay the foundations for Silicon Valley.
Though Robert Noyce was the one who got the patent for Integrated Circuit, he shares the credit with Jack Kilby. Noyce incidentally was one of the Fairchild 8, who would later found Intel in 1968, along with Gordon Moore. He was one of the finest CEOs to date.
Matter of fact the late 1960s were marked by the Patent Wars, over the Integrated Circuit, with a whole lot of claimants trying to claim credit for it. It was finally narrowed down to 4- Noyce, Jack Kilby, Kurt Lehovec and Jean Hoerni, later to Noyce and Kilby.
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#TodayInHistory The #WorldWideWeb comes into being. This was the date on which Tim Berners Lee actually made his proposal for the Web, it would take some more time for it go live. And there are many other phases too.
While The Web and Internet are often used interchangeably, fact is the Web is any other service like email, that is used over the Net. Internet's history dates back much earlier than the Web's, and the Web's development is just a part of it.
Matter of fact much before the Web, there were other applications in the Hypertext space- Memex by Vannevar Bush, IBM's Generalized Markup Language, and Project Xanadu by Ted Nelson. The last in fact claimed theirs to be an improvement over the Web.
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#TodayInHistory The Naval Ratings Mutiny begins in Mumbai, in 1946, one of the main reasons for the British to quit India. Unfortunately it has become a Forgotten Mutiny, not getting it's due in our history books, inspite of it's significant impact.
During an interview in 1976, then British PM Clement Atlee, claimed the Naval Ratings Mutiny to be one of the significant factors for the British to quit India. And when asked about the impact of the Quit India movement, he dismissed it as minimal.
The British often used the Indian soldiers as cannon fodder, they did all the dirty work, were the persons on front line in conflict and in many World Wars, many Indian soldiers died fighting for the British empire.
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#TodayInHistory The Battle of Sinhgad, takes place in 1670 AD, when Tanaji Malusare, one of Shivaji Maharaj's finest generals, undertakes one of the greatest military operations in the history of India. An inspiring tale of courage, tactics and heroism.
Sinhagad was originally called as Kondhana , and is located around 12 miles from Pune. Located on the eastern side of the great Sahayadri range, it is connected to Purandar on the east and west by very high ridges, and on the north and south, there is a huge rugged mountain.
The fort is located on the mountain with a sheer vertical drop and and it has a strong wall, flanked by towers. The only entrance to the fort is by the gates. Shivaji was forced to surrender this fort to Raja Jai Singh, by the Treaty of Purandar.
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#TodayInHistory Chattrapati Shivaji routs the Adil Shahi forces at the Battle of Kolhapur in 1659, a victory that gave him a decisive edge over Bijapur, as well as consolidating his hold. A victory won by rapid movements of flanks taking enemy by surprise.
After Shivaji's first major victory over the Adilshahis at the Battle of Pratapgarh, and the killing of Afzal Khan, he forayed further into enemy territory, capturing fort after fort, till he came to the historic fort of Panhala, located near to Kolhapur.
Built by Shilhara ruler Bhoja II, during the early 13th century, Panhala Fort, later passed into the hands of the Yadavas of Devagiri, and during the Adilshahi rule in Bijapur, it became one of their major forts, which they fortified extensively.
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#TodayInHistory Operation Trident, the Indian Navy launches a surprise attack on Karachi harbor, pulling off one of the greatest Naval victories in military history. This occasion is celebrated as #NavyDay every year, to commemorate the great victory.
The 1971 War was one in which the Indian Navy played an equally important role, unlike the 1962, 1965 Wars, that were primarily land based. In 1965,the Navy had more of a support role, but here it was one of the important aspects of the War.
The 1971 War, started on December 3, 1971, when the Pakistani air forced, launched Operation Chengiz Khan, a series of pre emptive attacks on the Indian air force bases in Pathankot, Agra, Ambala, that fortunately did not cause any major damage.
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#TodayInHistory The Battle of Cajamarca takes place in 1532, when the Incan ruler Atahualpa is ambushed and captured by a small Spanish force led by Francisco Pizzaro. It would begin the process of destruction of one of the richest empires in the world, the Incas.
One of the most sordid chapters in the history of European colonialism and Christiantity is the total destruction of native Indian civilizations in the Americas, though far more devastating in Latin America, where once mighty empires- Incas, Aztecs, Mayas were totally destroyed.
When one looks at pre Columbian Americas, 3 of the biggest empires and civilizations were the Incas, Mayas, Aztecs. The Inca Empire was the largest of the lot, and also the most advanced too, with a strong political and administrative structure, primarily centered in the Andes.
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Nov. 11 1918: The last Austro-Hungarian Emperor Charles I signs a proclamation in which he "relinquish(ed) every participation in the administration of the State" marking the end of the 600-year rule of the Habsburgs over #Austria. #TodayInHistory #ArmisticeDay100 #Armistice100
On 13 November, Charles IV issued a similar (Eckartsau) proclamation for #Hungary. In neither declaration did the emperor use the word 'abdication'. Indeed, he tried to reclaim the Hungarian throne twice in 1921. "I did not abdicate, and never will," he wrote to a confidant.
Altogether the losses of Austria-Hungary during #WW1 can be estimated at around 2 million (excluding direct civilian war deaths). #ArmisticeDay100 #ArmisticeDay
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