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#OTD in 1862 Newton Knight reenlisted in the Confederate Army after being on furlough. He originally enlisted in July of 1861. He deserted in October of 1862 and headed home after he received word the Confederate Army had taken his family's horses for the war effort.
There is much debate and mystery surrounding Knight, his actions during and after the war, and what motivated him. However, Knight's life provides insight into conflicting ideas of race, class, and politics in Mississippi and the South writ large during the Civil War.
Knight was a yeoman farmer in Jones County, Mississippi when the war broke out. According to historian @vikki_bynum, only 12% of the county's population was Black and most whites were subsistence farmers like Knight.
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The Battle of Palmito Ranch was fought in Texas #OTD in 1865. The Confederate victory is widely considered the last battle of the Civil War. The battle occurred over one month after Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox and two days after Jefferson Davis was captured. Image
Both sides knew the war was virtually over, but a small contingent of Confederate forces refused to surrender near Brownsville, Texas. Many of the men serving under the Union Army there were members of the United States Colored Troops.
A fragile cease fire had been agreed to between the two sides on May 11. However, Confederate Lt. Gen. Edmund Smith of the Trans-Mississippi Department refused to accept the inevitable end of the war.
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#OTD in 1864 the House passed the Wade-Davis Reconstruction bill. The House version of the bill was written by Rep. Henry Davis of Maryland. By this time Congress attempted to preemptively take control of post-war policy, creating a rift with President Lincoln.
Lincoln issued the "Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction" on December 8, 1863. It required only 10 percent of a seceding state's population to take an oath of loyalty before a new state government could be formed. These states would also be required to abolish slavery.
Radical Republicans in Congress felt Lincoln's plan was too lenient and began crafting legislation of their own to address the issue. They asserted that Confederate states were not states, but conquered territory. Lincoln maintained that those states never legally seceded.
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#OTD in 1865 President Andrew Johnson put out a reward of $100,000 dollars (Approximately $2 million in today's money) for the capture of Confederate President Jefferson Davis. Davis and a small group of close advisors had fled Richmond in early April. Image
They initially fled to Danville, Virginia but had to quickly leave because the Union Army was hot on their tail. They arrived in the town of Washington, Georgia in Wilkes County of May 3rd. He held his last meeting the next day. Image
Davis reunited with his family on May 7th and they arrived in Abbeville on May 8th. During this time, it was believed by the United States Government that Davis played a role in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Image
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#TodayInHistory The Battle of Mactan was fought on the island of Cebu in Phillipines, where the Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan was killed by the native chief Lapu- Lapu. Reason why this event is significant, is that it takes a look at the Spanish colonization here
The Battle of Mactan, is significant in that it represents a significant challenge to the Spanish colonization and evangelism in The Phillipines, that has not been given due importance in most history books in West predictably.
The battle fought at Mactan against Magellan and his troops, was not just a revolt against Spanish colonialism, it was also against the evangelism, conversions to Christianity that slowly destroyed the native culture of the Phillipines.
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#TodayInHistory 3000 Hindus trying to migrate to India in 1971, are massacred at Jhathibanga Village under Sadara Thakurgaon division in Bangladesh by the Pakistani army and their Razakar collaborators.
Around 3000 Hindus belonging to 4 villages under Thakurgaon division decided to migrate to India, they rested for the night at a small village called Jhathibanga, before proceeding the next day.
The local Razakars informed the Pakistani army of this, who promptly blocked all the exit routes, rounded all the migrating Hindus and began to shoot em up. Around 3000 Hindus were massacred, their bodies thrown in to the stream.
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#TodayInHistory More than 1000 killed and countless injured at #JallianwalaBagh on Baisakhi in 1919 under the orders of Gen Reginald O Dyer. #LestWeForget #JallianwalaBaghMassacre
Jallianwala Bagh,a name that evokes painful memories in our history, a reminder of the brutality of the British rule. It was a place I actually visited in 2001, walked through the narrow entrance, stood on the ground stained with the blood of Indians.
The backdrop to Jallianwala Bagh was the Ghadr mutiny, which planned for a large scaled armed uprising against the British that was crushed by the British. #JallianwalaBaghMassacre
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#TodayinHistory Constantinople falls to the Crusaders in 1204, marking the end of the 4th Crusade, as the city is taken from the Byzantines. Baldwin of Flanders is crowned as the Emperor, while the city would be fully sacked and looted.
It would be a major blow to the Byzantine Empire as it broke up into smaller territories before being finally ended by the Ottomans in 1453. However the Crusaders looting of Constantinople did not go down well with many.
Constantinople was then the largest Christian city in the world, and the Crusader's looting of it's churches became a major scandal. And it would lead to the major rift between the Orthodox and Catholic church that backed the Crusaders.
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#TodayInHistory The notorious Ugandan dictator Idi Amin is overthrown in 1979, as Kampala falls to a combined Tanzanian Army-Uganda National Liberation Front alliance, ending a 8 year old reign of terror, that saw the death of more than 500,000 people. ImageImageImage
Idi Amin had come to power in 1971, overthrowing the then President Milton Obote, while initially pro West, he was later backed by the likes of Gaddafi( Libya), Mobutu Sese Seko( Zaire), the Soviet Union and East Germany.
Irony is that Uganda under Idi Amin was a member of the UN Human Rights Comission, yes that body was always one big joke. When UK broke diplomatic relations with him, he bragged that he had conquered the British Empire.
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#TodayInHistory Douglas MacArthur is relieved of his command during the Korean War in 1951 by President Harry Truman leading to one of the most high profile public spats over McArthur's statements to the media. ImageImageImageImage
McArthur was in charge of the UN forces during the Korean War, where he had conceived and executed the amphibious assault at Inchon, regarded as one of the greatest military operations ever.
However McArthur's attempt to do an all out invasion of N.Korea, was met with a series of defeats at the hands of Chinese forces, forcing him to withdraw. Though the situation stabilized, McArthur's public statements complicated the situation.
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#TodayinHistory in 1978, after the elections for seats in the Interim Batasang Pambansa under Martial Law, incarcerated Ninoy Aquino, who ran for elections in a bid to oppose the dominant Kilusang Bagong Lipunan party, declared a "moral victory." THREAD. #PH #history
Upon Pres. Ferdinand Marcos' declaration of Martial Law on 23 Sept 1972, opposition senator, Ninoy Aquino, was top 1 in the list of people to be arrested, together w/ dissenting lawmakers, journalists, activists, etc.
W/ SC affirming the 1973 Consti giving Marcos both Executive & Legislative powers, the Consti mandated a transitionary unicameral legislature, the Interim Batasang Pambansa, as #PH shifted from presidential to presidential-parliamentary form of gov.
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#TodayinHistory: On 8 April 1929, revolutionaries Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt hurled two bombs at the Central Legislative Assembly at Delhi, in protest of an unfavorable Bill which would reduce the civil liberties of citizens. (1/n) Image
The true motivation behind this daring conduct was to be apprehended and use the ensuing court appearances to advance the cause of their organization, the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA), for India's independence.(2/n)
Certain newspapers, namely Hindustan Times, Pioneer, and Bande Mataram, were to face contempt of court for printing images of Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt, who were implicated in the Assembly Bomb Case at the time. (3/n) ImageImageImage
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#TodayinHistory in 1871, Epifanio de los Santos, pioneer Filipiniana collector, historian, writer, assemblyman & polyglot, was born in #Malabon #PH. By virtue of RA 2140, s. 1959, Highway 54 in Metro Manila was renamed Epifanio de los Santos Ave (#EDSA). THREAD. Image
Born to the wealthy couple, Escolastico de los Santos & Antonina Cristobal y Tongco, Epifanio used his privilege to educate himself for his people's benefit. He studied at @ateneodemanilau & earned his Law degree in @UST1611official. He was well versed in Spanish literature...
...finding Juan Valera's novel, "Pepita Jimenez," moving. He sympathized w/ the Ilustrado reformist campaign, & actively supported the #PH Revolution vs Spain on its resumption in 1898. He was an editor for La Independencia, & was columnist for...
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#TodayInHistory Austria is annexed to Germany in 1938 as part of the Anschluss, as the Nazis marched in to a huge welcome. This thread looks at the events preceeding it.
To understand Anschluss, you actually have to go as far back as 1871, when there was an idea to form a kleindeutsch German empire that would exclude Austria and make Prussia the focus.
In opposition, the Austrian empire had a German minority ruling over a majority which consisted of Slavs and Hungarians, and they sought a Greater Germany of sorts that would be led by the Hapsburgs in which Prussia would play a secondary role.
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#TodayInHistory Chattrapathi Sambhaji Maharaj was brutally tortured and executed by Aurangzeb in 1689. Thread on a hero who has not really got his due. #LestWeForget #sambhajimaharaj Image
Mrutyuche aavhaan peluni, toch varasa aamhaala dila l
Shivrayaancha Shambhu chaava, Hindu mhanuni amar jahala ll
Coming from the same legacy that confronted death,
Shivaji’s son Shambhu, became immortal as a Hindu.
Quite often, growing up in the shadow of a banyan tree can be quite inhibiting, however much you grow, and you shall always look small against the banyan. In a sense that was what happened to Sambhaji, the son of Shivaji Maharaj.
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#TodayinHistory in 1906, the First Battle of Bud Dajo ended between the Tausug resistance & American troops, w/ the utter defeat & massacre of the said group of approx. 600 to 1000 men, women, & children. THREAD. #history #PH
With the outbreak of the Philippine-American War in 1899, the US entered into an agreement w/ the Sultanate of Sulu, & other datus in Mindanao in an effort to temporarily stall a possible resistance to US rule in the south until resistance in Luzon & Panay have been quelled.
In late Feb 1906, 5 years after the Philippine-American War ended w/ the capitulation of the 1st #PH Republic & its remnant forces, around 1000 aggrieved Tausugs moved up to Mt. Dajo, a dormant volcano near Jolo, in defiance of American authorities.
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#TodayinHistory in 1879, Rosa Sevilla de Alvero, suffragette, feminist & educator, was born in Tondo, #Manila #PH. Her campaign led to the passage of women's suffrage in 1937 making #PH one of the few Asian countries to grant women's right to vote. THREAD. #WomensHistoryMonth
Born to Ambrosio Sevilla, a Spanish military officer, & Silvina Tolentino (related to revolutionary playwright & writer Aurelio Tolentino), she was reared in robust debate among Filipino intellectuals who were invited by her aunt into their home.
In 1899, she was part of the editorial staff of Antonio Luna's, La Independencia, w/c was one of the Filipino newspapers providing political commentary & news at the time when the fledgling 1st #PH Republic was seeking int'l recognition & est. authority.
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#TodayinHistory in 1894, Paz Márquez-Benítez, author of the very first #Filipino #shortstory in English, was born in Lucena City, Tayabas (now Quezon Province). She was a women's rights advocate, beauty queen, & a founder of #PH Women's University. THREAD. #WomensHistoryMonth
Born to the couple Gregorio Marquez & Maria Jurado, both educators, the Marquezes were a prominent family in Tayabas. She inherited from them a passion for learning, entering Tayabas High School (now Quezon National High School) at the young age of 9.
Living at the turn of the 20th c. when #PH was ceded to the U.S., & PH-US War broke out, Paz was part of 1st gen of Filipinos educated in the ways & inclinations of America. Her Spanish became "ceremonial," Tagalog "utilitarian", w/ English becoming "the language of her heart."
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#TodayinHistory in 1847, Cayetano Arellano, 1st Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, was born in Udyong (now Orion), Bataan, #PH. Although a controversial figure, Arellano set the foundation of the PH judiciary. THREAD. #history #kasaysayan Image
Born to Don Servando Arellano, a Spaniard, & Crisfora Lonzon of Bataan, Cayetano Arellano was a working student in his early years, finishing primary & secondary educ in @LetranOfficial, after w/c he finished Philosophy (1862), Theology (1867) & Laws (1876) at @UST1611official.
Arellano became instructor at the UST teaching Civil Law. Soon, he served as member ("regidor") of the council of the City of Manila (#Intramuros) from 1887 to 1889. He was soon appointed by the colonial gov as Magistrado Suplente of the Audiencia Territorial de Manila.
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#TodayinHistory in 1986, 3 days after Corazon Aquino took her oath as 11th President of the Philippines, she issued EO No. 1, establishing the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG). As of 2021, it has recovered 174 billion pesos of Marcos ill-gotten wealth. THREAD.
Beginning in 1968, under the names "William Saunders" & "Jane Ryan," Pres. Ferdinand Marcos & First Lady Imelda Marcos deposited $950k in @CreditSuisse, stolen from US war reparations to #PH. The trail was pursued from the papers discovered left behind in Malacañang in 1986.
A month prior to the Ninoy Aquino assassination in 1983, the Marcoses purchased art pieces by renowned artists like Coffermans, Degas, Veronese, de Zurban and della Robbia, w/ value amounting to $2.2M. There are other artworks yet to be recovered.
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#TodayinHistory in 1986, #EDSA #PeoplePower Revolution succeeded. Ferdinand Marcos lost control of the military. At 10:45 am, Cory Aquino took her oath as 11th #PH President. At 9:25 pm, Marcos & family left Malacañang & fled to Hawaii. The world was astonished. THREAD. #EDSA36
On 22 Feb, w/ the call of Jaime Cardinal Sin for people to form human barricades to protect the military defectors led by Defense Sec Juan Ponce Enrile & AFP Vice Chief of Staff Fidel Ramos, thousands responded, bringing w/ them donations, bibles, & rosaries.
On 23 Feb, the 1st attempt to arrest the defectors were repelled by civilians who braved their bare bodies at risk of being crushed by metal tanks or being shot at.
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#TodayinHistory in 1986, Marines broke thru Camp Aguinaldo's east wall, but hesitated due to civilian buffer. Soon, PH Air Force's 15th Strike Wing hovered. Crowd expected an attack but the airmen joined the crowd. Marcos issued kill order but it was not obeyed. THREAD. #EDSA36
@RadyoVeritasPH provided a blow-by-blow account of #EDSA even as its transmission tower was compromised by the PH Constabulary attack, limiting its airing to Luzon. However, a mysterious radio station appeared at 12mn calling itself "Radyo Bandido."
Listeners tuned in, as Radyo Bandido (@DZRJ810AM) station played the Mambo Magsaysay jingle, making people realize that it was really Radyo Veritas gone rogue.
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#TodayinHistory in 1986, #Marcos sent 12 tanks to #EDSA led by Gen. Artemio Tadiar in an attempt to arrest the defectors & disperse the crowd. But the human barricades across the intersection of Ortigas & EDSA forced the marines to pull back. THREAD. #EDSA36 #PH #history
The day prior, as news of the defection reached Cory Aquino, she was staying for the night in secret at the Carmelite monastery in Cebu. The sisters saw it their duty to protect her, believing that they were protecting the legit president.
At dawn, via @RadyoVeritasPH, Enrile & Ramos began calling for Marcos' ouster. At 5:30 am, PH Constabulary attacked Radyo Veritas limiting its airing to Luzon only. A few hours later, men began cutting down trees & used these as barricade on roads near Camps Crame & Aguinaldo.
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#TodayInHistory US Marines raise the flag on Iwo Jima during the battle in 1945. The picture shot by Joe Rosenthal, would be one of the most iconic photographs ever of the 20th century, and WWII. It was actually raised on Mt.Suribachi that was captured after intensive combat. Image
Of the 6 Marines who raised the flag, three of them-Sergeant Michael Strank, Corporal Harlon Block, and Private First Class Franklin Sousley were killed in action, while Ira Hayes, Harold Schultz, Harold Keller, served till the end of the war.
The iconic photograph won the Pulitzer Prize, and was well used by the US Govt to whip up nationalist sentiments and raise war bonds. Unfortunately the 3 survivors, did not really benefit much, and had a troubled life later on.
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