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History of Diabetes. A thread.

1550 B.C: “Too Great Emptying Of The Urine”

First ever recorded mention of diabetes in Ebers Papyrus, written around 1550 BC, excavated in 1862 AD from an ancient grave in Egypt.

#EndoTwitter #Diabetes #MemoryLane
@JoyYWu @StanfordMed @MedscapeEndo @TheEndoSociety @Endocrine_News Around the same time, Indian physicians seemed to stumble upon a mysterious illness with "Honey Urine" which attracted ants and flies. They started to use the ants to diagnose the illness.

#EndoTwitter #Diabetes #MemoryLane
@JoyYWu @StanfordMed @MedscapeEndo @TheEndoSociety @Endocrine_News 230 B.C

Egyptian healer/historian, writer of 'On the Names of the Parts of the Human Body', Apollonius of Memphis, names the illness "Diabetes" (dia – through, betes – to go].

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@JoyYWu @StanfordMed @MedscapeEndo @TheEndoSociety @Endocrine_News @EndoMedia 5 A.D
Indian physicians, Sushruta and Charaka, noted that there were two types of Diabetes, one afflicting "Thin, young & poor" and another one in "Heavy & rich".

Reportedly around the same time, 'water tasters' diagnosed the suspected cases by 'tasting the urine'.

@JoyYWu @StanfordMed @MedscapeEndo @TheEndoSociety @Endocrine_News @EndoMedia 1000 A.D

Ibn-e-Sina(Avicenna), a Persian polymath, arguably father of modern medicine describes diabetes as "illness of sweet urine, increased appetite, and complications, such as diabetic gangrene and sexual dysfunction".

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@JoyYWu @StanfordMed @MedscapeEndo @TheEndoSociety @Endocrine_News @EndoMedia 1000-1900 A.D
An array of treatment options are being tried, including 'repleting the lost sugar' by supplementing patients with 'wheat, beer and sugar', opium, tobacco, and 'avoiding sex'(to manage sexual dysfunction due to DM)

#EndoTwitter #MedTwitter #MemoryLane #Diabetes
@JoyYWu @StanfordMed @MedscapeEndo @TheEndoSociety @Endocrine_News @EndoMedia 1885 A.D

Apollinaire Bouchardat, french pharmacist/physician, notes that soldiers with DM fighting in Franco-Prussian war had improvement in symptoms when they ate little. This leads to diet-based treatments.

#EndoTwitter #MedTwitter #MemoryLane #Diabetes #FOAMed
@JoyYWu @StanfordMed @MedscapeEndo @TheEndoSociety @Endocrine_News @EndoMedia 1889, A.D
Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski notice that the dogs with their pancreas removed developed diabetes and died shortly afterward. This is first recorded link of pancreas and diabetes.

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@JoyYWu @StanfordMed @MedscapeEndo @TheEndoSociety @Endocrine_News @EndoMedia 1920's A.D

Frederick Allen, an American physician, introduces 'Starvation diet' leading to many 'thin & young' dying of starvation and 'heavy & rich' surviving for longer period of time.

#EndoTwitter #MedTwitter #MemoryLane #Diabetes #FOAMed
@JoyYWu @StanfordMed @MedscapeEndo @TheEndoSociety @Endocrine_News @EndoMedia 1920-22 A.D
Frederick Banting and Charles Best(selected by a coin toss :p), inject pancreatic islet cells extract from healthy dogs into dogs with diabetes, resulting in reversal of diabetes.
Insulin is discovered, they win Nobel Prize for it.

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@JoyYWu @StanfordMed @MedscapeEndo @TheEndoSociety @Endocrine_News @EndoMedia 1955: A Sulfonyluria, Carbetamide, becomes available as first oral option.
1963: Insulin becomes the very first human protein to be chemically synthesized.

#EndoTwitter #MedTwitter #MemoryLane #Diabetes #FOAMed
@JoyYWu @StanfordMed @MedscapeEndo @TheEndoSociety @Endocrine_News @EndoMedia 1969: BG meters become available to hospitals&physicians.
1981: The first personal-use BG meter (Bayer’s Glucometer) is released, weighs 3 pounds.
1995: Metformin becomes available as the second oral option
9/26/2019: Join me for journal club @StanfordMed, on delaying DM1.😉
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