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9 Oct, 99 tweets, 52 min read
Mighty Sovereigns Of Ottoman Throne : Sultan Murad I

By Ekrem Buğra Ekinci

👆🏻 widely used illustration painted by court painter Konstantin Kapıdağlı in the early 19th century shows Sultan Murad I , the 3rd ruler of Ottoman beylik that turned into an empire .

👆🏻👉🏻📸 Credits : Büşra Öztürk - Daily Sabah
While his predecessor , Osman & Orhan ghazis , had gathered a nation & created a state , Sultan Murad I improved his lands , making a prosperous country from it for all citizens .
Although some Ottoman sultans died due to illness during military campaigns , one of them was truly martyred in a war . This sovereign was Sultan Murad I , the son of Orhan Ghazi . Sultan Murad was referred to by the titles of “ Hodawendgar ” & “ Gazi Hünkar ”.
While #Hodawendgar means chief or master in Persian , Ghazi Hunqar means veteran ruler in Türkish . The vilayet (province) , the center of which was #Bursa , was called Hodawendgar to honor his memory until the end of The Great Ottoman State .
👇🏻👉🏻📸 A depiction of Ottoman Sultan Murad I .
The mother of Sultan Murad was Nilüfer Hatun , who was the daughter of the #Byzantine Governor of Yarhisar & was previously called Holofira before converting to Islam & he was born in Bursa .
Every #Shahzade (#Prince) was trained by an experienced statesperson called “ #Lala ” in The Great Ottoman State . The tutor of Murad I was #LalaŞahinPasha .
Sultan Murad was assigned as the #SanjakBey (the title given in The Great Ottoman State to a #Bey appointed to the military & administrative command of a district) of Bursa at a young age , which provided him a great experience .
When his elder brother Süleyman Pasha died in a hunting accident in 1359 , he became the heir to the throne . He was the commander of the army in #Rumelia in this year & ascended to the throne as the successor of his father , who died the following year .
" No Hope Left "
Since political power was seen as the common property of the dynasty in the old Türkish tradition , his 2 brothers Ibrahim & Halil rebelled against Sultan Murad . Thus , Murad suppressed the 1st Shahzade revolts in the history of The Great Ottoman State .
After conquering #Ankara & #Ereğli (#Heraclia) on #BlackSea coast , Sultan Murad I headed to #Rumelia as #ByzantineEmpire made an alliance with #Venice & attempted to occupy the lands of The Great Ottoman State here by taking advantage of the Sultan's occupation in #Anatolia .
👇🏻 👉🏻 📸 16th Century Miniature Of Murad I .
#Edirne , which was called #Adrianople back then , belonged to Byzantine Empire at that time , but the locals were not happy & satisfied with the administration . In an uprising in 1345 , the notables of the city were put to the sword .
Sultan Murad evaluated this situation & conquered Edirne in 1363 with the Battle in #Sazlıdere in 1363 . The government headquarters was moved to Edirne , & tens of thousands of Türks brought from Anatolia were settled in uninhabited lands in the city .
The #Sultan was determined to conquer the entire #Balkans . So , he set up 4 fronts here , conquered #Kırklareli & reached the Black Sea . He commissioned #Evrenos Bey with the conquest of #WesternThrace while charging Lala Şahin Pasha with the conquest of #SouthernBulgaria .
#StaraZagora , #Plovdiv (#Filibe) & #Komotini (#Gümülcine) were conquered , thus Byzantine Empire & #Bulgaria ; #Serbia & Bulgaria ; #Albania & Serbia were separated from each other .
When Byzantine Empire realized that it would not receive support from the locals , it gave up the hope of expelling the #Ottomans from Rumelia & agreed to come to terms & recognized these conquests .
" #Catholic Or #Orthodox ? "
This progress of the Ottomans , which Byzantine Empire could not prevent , worried the #Christian world . It did not seem possible for Serbians & Bulgarians to resist it either .
Venice did not want to start a war with the Ottomans & jeopardize it's commercial interests in the #East . The only force that could resist them would be #Hungarians , who wanted to #Catholicise the #Balkan people .
👇🏻 👉🏻 📸 An interior view of the tomb of Murad I in Bursa , #NorthWestern Türkiye .
The army formed by the kings of #Hungarians & #Serbians along with the prince of #Bosnia & #Wallachia with the encouragement of #PopeUrbanV – the head of the #CatholicChurch – was destroyed in a night raid near Edirne
by a reconnaissance unit under the command of Ottoman commander #HacıIlbeyi in 1364 . After this victory , known as “ #Sırpsındığı ” (#RoutOfSerbs) , Serres & Biga , a coastal town in #Anatolia's #Marmara shores still under Byzantine control , were conquered .
The Republic of #Ragusa , centered on the Adriatic port city of #Dubrovnik , accepted Ottoman #Suzerainty to keep it's lucrative trade routes . It became the cannon casting center of the Ottomans .
The Ottomans were welcomed by #Rumelian people . #Greek Patriarch praised Sultan Murad for his tolerance toward the #Orthodox in a letter to Pope Urban VI in 1385 . In the face of the #Catholic threat , it was natural for Orthodox people to prefer the Ottomans .
The period of peace that started with these developments gave Sultan Murad the opportunity to improve the country .
He commissioned an #Imaret (Soup Kitchen For The Poor) & #Tekke (Lodge) in #Yenişehir ; 3 Mosques , an Imaret , a Madrassa , a Thermal Spring & an Inn in Bursa ; a Mosque , a Madrassa , an Imaret & a palace in Edirne along with a mosque in #Bilecik .
Bursa became one of the brightest scientific & cultural centers of the Islamic World in his time .
👇🏻 👉🏻 📸 16th century portrait of Murad I by Paolo Veronese .
" A New Chance "
Although Byzantine Emperor John V Palaiologos sought support from #Europe , he did not succeed . #Serbian & #Bulgarian allied army was defeated by the Ottomans in #Samokov in 1370 .
The gates of #NorthernBulgaria were opened to the Ottomans & #Kyustendil fell . Thus , the Ottomans set foot in #Serbia .
Serbian & #Wallachian allied army wanted to try it's luck again but was defeated in #Çirmen (#Tshronomen , #Chernomen , modern day #Ormenio) in 1371 . #Macedonian gates were wide open to the Ottomans now .
The people , fed up with Serbian & Bulgarian administration , accepted the Ottoman rule . #Drama , #Kavala & #Bitola fell . #NorthMacedonia & #Kosovo were also conquered .
Ottoman raiding units , the advanced troops of The Great Ottoman State , reached the #Dalmatian coast . #King of Serbia & Bulgarian King recognized Ottoman suzerainty in 1372 & 1376 , respectively .
Nis , one of the most important cities of Serbia where Roman Emperor Constantine the Great was born , was captured by the Ottomans .
Starting from 1380 , the Ottomans conquered cities such as #Prilep , #Sofia , #Nis , #Bitola , #Ohrid & #Shkodra in order to consolidate their position in Rumelia . Thereupon , Byzantine emperor recognized the Ottomans as sovereign & accepted to pay tribute in 1373 .
👇🏻 👉🏻 📸 A depiction of Battle of Kosovo by Serbian lithographer & painter Adam Stefanovic .
Meanwhile , Murad’s son Shahzade Bayezid married Devlet Hatun , the Princess of the #Beylik of #Germiyanids , in 1378 . The bride brought the cities of #Kütahya , #Tavşanlı , #Emet & #Simav as dowry to the Ottomans .
Cities such as #Akşehir , #Yalvaç , #Beyşehir , #Seydişehir & #Karaağaç were also purchased from the #Beylik of #Hamid . The Beylik of #Isfendiyar in #Kastamonu , ruled by the brother of the Sultan's wife , Gülçiçek Hatun , recognized the Ottomans as sovereign .
In 1385 , Shahzade Savcı Bey rebelled against his father in Bursa . He was defeated , captured & executed in battle on the plain of #Kete .
" Stupid Tyrant ! "
Ali Bey , who was the ruler of the #Karamanids – which became a border neighbor with the Ottomans – was married to the sister of Sultan Murad .
Nevertheless , he crossed the border while Sultan Murad was busy with military operations in the #Balkans & attempted to invade & plunder Ottoman lands .
This narrow-mindedness is one of the most important reasons why none of the #Anatolian principalities could grow like the Ottomans & all of them disappeared over time .
When Sultan Murad heard about his brother-in-law's moves , he said :
" Look at what this stupid cruel man has done ! While I have devoted my life day & night to the war in the way of Allah , & while I was swinging the sword at the enemy in trouble ; he is coming & attacking Muslims !”
& easily dispersed the #Karaman troops , which he marched on in 1386 .
👇🏻 👉🏻 📸 Sultan Murad I Memorial , #Obilic , #Kosovo , 1st September 2013 .
Shahzade #Bayezid was helpful in this operation & received the title of " #Yıldırım " , meaning “ #Thunderbolt ”. Ali Bey escaped & his wife came to his brother & demanded peace .
Then Ali Bey came into the presence of the Sultan & kissed the Sultan's feet & asked for forgiveness . Thanks to this prudent policy , Ottoman influence spread in Anatolia .
Sultan Murad , who showed in his relations with the Anatolian principalities that success could not be won with the sword alone , was very careful not to cause trouble with the #Venetians , who had a strong navy .
If cities surrendered , he would give full security & freedom with an #AhidName – an edict guaranteeing the rights of the people . Besides , Sultan Murad & #Barquq , the #Mamluk Sultan of Egypt , both faced the threat of the Crusaders & made an alliance .
As soon as Sultan Murad returned , Ali Bey began negotiating with the #Crusaders . However , he did not neglect to send a unit to the Battle of #Kosovo a few years later due to his fear .
" Sacrifice Me ! "
When an army of 30,000 troops constituted from a Serbian-Bosnian alliance defeated an Ottoman army of 20,000 soldiers in #Ploshnik , breaching a treaty , in 1388 , the #Europeans were overtaken with excitement .
As such they gathered a #CrusaderArmy to completely expel the Ottomans from the Balkans . Thereupon , Sultan Murad I immediately ordered the Grand Vizier Ali Pasha to launch a full-scale invasion of Bulgaria .
Despite this , Serbian army continued to advance , but in 1389 they were devastated on the plains of #Kosovo . Serbian Prince Lazar fell . #TheBattleOfKosovo , which lasted for 8 hours , stands as one of the most important events in Ottoman history .
It consolidated the Ottoman dominance in the Balkans & determined the fate of the nations in the region . This was the historical battle in which the Ottomans used cannons for the 1st time . (According to another report , it was the #Karaman expedition) .
👇🏻 👉🏻 📸 A painting of Serbian knight Milos Obilic .
In Ottoman chronicles , it is said that Sultan Murad prayed in his tent the night before the battle , desiring martyrdom . It is said that he prayed as thus :
“ Oh my Allah ! Sacrifice me for these Muslims ; so long as they are not defeated & destroyed at the hands of the enemy !”
At the end of the battle , Sultan Murad was stabbed & martyred by the wounded Serbian knight Milos Obilic , who wanted to meet him in person .
(It was after this incident that it became customary for foreigners who came before the Ottoman sultans to have one soldier on each arm) . Sultan Murad was 63 years old when he embraced martyrdom .
Although he was martyred on the battlefield , the enemy could not take advantage of this & advance .
His temporary tomb , which was constructed upon the spot where he was martyred , is considered a sacred place visited by Muslims today & a symbol of Ottoman domination in Rumelia .
The body of The Martyred Sultan was brought to Bursa & buried in the tomb of the mosque he had built .
The martyrdom of a ruler in such a victorious battlefield caused so much distress in the Islamic World that #Egyptian #SultanBarquq sent a #Candlestick , a #Bowl & a #Mushaf (written form of The Holy Quran) to be placed in Sultan Murad’s tomb in Bursa .
" Sultan The ‘ Organizer ’ "
Sultan Murad established the office of the “ #Kazasker ” in 1361 as the equivalent of the “ Qadi Al-Qudat ” (Chief Justice Of The Highest Court) .
The office was responsible for appointing and controlling the “ #Qadis ” ( #Judges ) in the previous Islamic states . Kazasker was the leader of the “ #Ulama ” (#IslamicScholars) , which included the courthouses & the education bureaucracy .
The Ottoman Army was constituted of 2 units from the “ #Yaya ” ( #Pedestrian ) & “ #Müsellem ” ( #Cavalry ) , which were the infantry & cavalry troops , respectively .
These units would join wars for a fee & during peacetime would be busy with private affairs , for example , agriculture . Due to the increase in military operations , a permanent & paid army was needed during the reign of Sultan Murad .
👇🏻 👉🏻 📸 " Milos Obilic At The Tent Of Murad " by Serbian lithographer & painter Adam Stefanovic .
According to Islamic law , 1/5th of those captured in war belonged to the state . Until then , this amount was sent to the #SeljukSultan .
In 1362 , with the efforts of #Karamanlı #KaraRüstem & #ÇandarlıKaraHalilPasha of the ulama , the “ #PençikLaw ” , #Pençik meaning 1/5th from the Persian words of “ #Penç ” (5) & “ #Yek ” (1) , was prepared .
This decreed that among 1/5th of captives , those who were suited to become statesmen or soldiers would be trained as such . Thus , the basis of the Ottoman bureaucracy & the #Kapıkulu corps , the Household Division of the Ottoman Sultans , was established .
" Collapsed Castle Wall "
Sultan Murad was of medium height , had a round face , curved nose & big eyes , while he had a wide scowl , a sparse beard , a broad chest & long fingers .
His 1st wife , Gülçiçek Hatun , was the daughter of Candaroğlu Süleyman Bey . In some sources , it is said that she was of Greek origin .
He also married Tamara , the sister of #BulgarianKing #IvanShisman ; Maria , daughter of #ByzantineEmperor #LoannisVPaleologos & daughter of #BulgarianPrince of #Kyustendil for political reasons .
The eldest son of #IvanShishman , #Alexander , converted to #Islam under the name #Iskender & died as #SanjakBey of #Manisa .
👇🏻👉🏻📸 The #HüdavendigarMosque , commissioned by Sultan Murad I , in Bursa .
He had 5 sons , namely ; Sultan #Bayezid I , Yahşi Bey , Yakub Bey , Savcı Bey & Ibrahim Bey . He also had 4 daughters , 1 of whom was married to a ruler of the #Sarukhanids & 2 of whom were married to rulers of the #Karamanids .
#SultanMurad was extremely religious & was respectful to scholars & Sufi saints . Every #Friday prayer , he would give alms to the poor . He was seen as a saint among the people & his miracles were noted .
For Example , rumor has it that when the siege of #Pleven lasted for 15 days & the castle could not be conquered , He Said :

“ It is difficult to take this castle . I hope God destroys it ! ”

At that very moment , a wall of the castle collapsed following a loud noise .
“ He personally participated in 37 battles . He was brave & never complacent . He was adept at arranging his affairs & doing everything in due time . He was as energetic in his old age as he was in his youth .
He was cautious . He treated his entourage well . He spoke little & when he did speak , he uttered kind words . He was a benevolent ruler , a tireless hunter & a kind knight .”
#Romanian Historian #NicolaeLorga Says :

“ He was generous & gracious towards #Muslims & was a gentle ruler who knew how to win hearts of #Christians instead of winning against them .”
👇🏻 👉🏻 📸 An interior view from the #HüdavendigarMosque , commissioned by Sultan Murad I , #Bursa , #NorthWestern #Türkiye , 13th #March 2020 .
#Slavic Historian #AntunDabinovic Says that :

“ Murad was not just a powerful politician but was a 1st-class commander . He would stick to his promise . He was very tolerant . He would not tolerate acts that violated the policy of the state .”
#French Historian #FernandGrenard Says :

" He was almost an innate ruler , who was unprecedented as his personality in #Europe of the time ."
During his reign , which lasted for 29 years , he gained many victories & never experienced the brutal face of defeat . He enlarged the lands he inherited from his father 5 times & left a country of 500,000 square kilometers (193,050 square miles) to his son Sultan Bayezid .
These lands remained under Ottoman rule for 5 centuries .
#British Historian #EdwardGibbons Says :

“ Osman Gazi gathered a nation around him ; Orhan Gazi created a state ; but the empire was established by #MuradHodawendgar .”

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