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Prepping for my second Medieval Ghost Stories class, and we're reading Peter Damian's account of a "lesbian" ghost and a story about some talking bones from the Old English Blickling Homilies.

Here's the talking bones story. #MedievalTwitter #MedievalGhostStories
A rich man lived a great life and then died. His kinsman, who loved him more than anyone else, was so heartbroken that he left the country for a while. At last, desiring to see his departed kinsman again, he returned and visited the grave.

The bones spoke to him. We mav now hear related  a story of a certain rich and influ
They demanded to know wtf he was doing looking at them, and reminded him that the dead man's beautiful body and fine clothes had become dust and wormfood. The bones furiously told the grieving man that this would happen to him too. Then the bones of the dead man called to him, and thus said
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I love a little medieval gryllus: just two legs, a head, and often a great hat.

They're always living their best lives.

(BnF, Latin 14284 f.16) #MedievalTwitter
Like, look at this fabulous fellow.

(Walters Art Museum, MS W90, f. 213v)
Or this very cheeky one from the same manuscript.

(Walters, MS W90, f. 106v)
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Thought experiment thread! I want to consider whether the famous medieval images of detached phalluses--often being gathered by nuns--might not be meant to represent flesh-and-blood penises. Could these be depictions of dildos?

(BnF, Français 25526, f. 106v) #MedievalTwitter
I've sort of suggested this before but I want to explore it a little more at length.

So, medieval people used dildos.

I do not know of any that have actually survived from western Europe (let me know if you do!), but we def have textual evidence.

(Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS Français 25526, f. 135v)
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As promised, a quick thread on medieval ghost lawsuits. So. Those were a thing. I know of examples from Scandinavian and Chinese literature.

Two forms: suing ghosts and being sued by ghosts.

Let's dive in! #MedievalTwitter #MedievalGhostStories
First up! Viking ghost lawsuits. This is a famous story from Eyrbyggja Saga, whose ghostly events are SUPER complicated. The relevant part is pretty simple: a fishing ship goes down at sea & everyone is drowned.

Then the drowned men come home.
Surprisingly, everyone is ok with this at first! It's good luck for dead people to drink their own funeral booze.

The problem is that they KEEP coming back. Night after night. Wet & dead & crowded round the fire. Translation of saga reads "mony. But on the first eveni
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My new paper is out today on isotopic analyses at the amazing early medieval cemetery of Finglesham in Kent in Arch&Anth Sciences @SpringerAnthro…

Summary 👇
#earlymedieval #medievaltwitter #archsci #isotopes #Archaeology 1/9 Image
I analysed bones & teeth from 46 individuals @ Finglesham to look @ where they grew up, what they ate as kids & if that had changed in adulthood. I was interested in if social status or gender made any difference in whether someone was a migrant to Kent or what they ate. 2/9 Image
I found that childhood diet (tooth roots) vs adult diet (ribs = ~10yrs before death) were subtly different, with a wider range of resources being eaten in early life vs later in life when they were presumably living in & around Finglesham, this links with mobility & gender. 3/9 Image
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La théorie du « grand remplacement » occupe le devant de la scène (oui, on pense à la Une choquante de Causeur, entre autres). Les sociétés médiévales ont elles aussi connu des phénomènes migratoires, dont l’ampleur est encore débattue... Un thread ⬇️! #histoire #medievaltwitter
L’un de ces épisodes est l’installation de populations scandinaves païennes en Angleterre et en Normandie, à partir du IXe siècle. Alors, rétrospectivement, y a-t-il eu « grand remplacement » ou pas ?
À partir de la fin du VIIIe siècle, les monastères, ports et autres établissements côtiers de la mer du Nord sont la cible de pillards scandinaves appelés vikings (un terme qui ne désigne pas un peuple mais une activité économique mêlant commerce et pillage)
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Des femmes enterrées avec des épées ⚔️ ?
Dans un article récemment paru, des chercheurs et chercheuses reviennent sur une tombe finlandaise datée du XIIe-XIIIe siècle. L’analyse ADN permet des conclusions… étonnantes. Un thread ⬇️ ! #histoire #medievaltwitter
En 1968, des archéologues trouvent une tombe à Suontaka Vesitorninmäki, Hattula, en Finlande. La tombe, datée de 1050-1300, abrite un squelette très dégradé, portant un habit féminin (deux broches ouvragées = mode typique de l'époque), et deux épées elles aussi abîmées
En réalité, seule une de ces épées a été placée dans la tombe. L’autre a été enterrée au-dessus quelques années après : une pratique bien attestée par les sources, liée à des rituels magiques. Ce qui veut dire que la tombe était célèbre à l’époque…
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A very "scholarly" thread on what the monkey is doing. The archive says the monkey's EITHER stabbing that man OR giving him an enema.

Let me explain why I think it's an enema.

(CW: graphic nudity, medical procedures)

(Morgan, MS M.754, f. 27r) #MedievalTwitter Image
Sadly, I don't have a more high-resolution image of the page, so excuse these two images.

Note that the monkey has two implements: something like a brown turkey-baster and a little black vessel of some sort. There seems to be a cord or tube connecting them. ImageImage
Now take a look at this 13th-century Italian image of a doctor preparing to administer an enema. We see a very similar vessel and a little device with a bulb and a nozzle for administering the enema.

(Paris, BnF, MS Latin 6912 (2), f.134v) Image
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🧵: Let me show you Jacqueline de Weever's pioneering 1994 study on how modern translators of medieval texts often reinforce ideas that Blackness cannot be beautiful, & how they claim, in their translations, that blackness is a "stain".
#MedievalTwitter Screenshot of article reads "NICOLETTE' S BLACKNESS- LO
De Weever analyzes translations of a major passage in the Old French romance 'Aucassin et Nicolette', when beautiful Nicolette discovers she's Arab and "anoints" her face black/noire.

Modern translators refuse to translate "noire" as "black" when applied to a beautiful woman.
De Weever notes that "noire" appears 2 times before it is applied to Nicolette. It is used to emphasize how white Nicolette is (so white daises appear "noire" by comparison) or to describe the blackness of a wild man. Translators translates these instances properly as "black". Screenshot reads ". Full quotation of her portrait or e"The word occurs a second time in the de Aucassin encou
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This Old English image of the destruction of the Sodomites is actually sort of haunting. These three men are holding onto each other as the fire comes down.

(BL, Cotton MS Claudius B IV, f. 32v) #MedievalTwitter
To their left, two more men hang onto a third man in red. One man in green holds him by the arm, another in blue rests his hand on the man's thigh.
The man in green seems to be shielding his lover with his body, worriedly turning his face up towards the sky. His lover, in red, just smiles, apparently comforted by the (futile) protection.
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🧵: Here are four Ethiopians from a late-tenth century Old English manuscript, depicted as blue men in accordance with a tradition of black-skinned people being described as blue.

Here are some thoughts on them.

(BL, Cotton MS Claudius B IV, f. 5v) #MedievalTwitter
We can see the Old English description of them above the portrait.
They're called "Silhearwana," the Old English word for "Ethiopians." That there was a specific Old English word for this is a little unusual, since they usually just adopted Latin terms. JRR Tolkien thought the word meant "sun-burned," like the word "Ethiopian" did.
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Au Moyen Age déjà, des villes se préoccupent de fournir un service public de santé de qualité. A l’occasion de la sortie de l’épisode 53 "Alexis et l’Adriatique", découvrez comment fonctionne le service de santé de la République de Raguse (aujourd’hui Dubrovnik).
Venise, Zadar, Split et d’autres villes ont compris l’intérêt politique et économique d’avoir une population en bonne santé et de faire en sorte que tout le monde ait accès aux soins. Elles s’inspirent des archiatres byzantins, des médecins payés pour rester en un lieu.
A partir d’au plus tard la fin du XIIIe siècle, la République de Raguse instaure ce système de médecins communaux. En 1440, elle salarie ainsi 4 médecins (2 physiciens et 2 chirurgiens) tenus de soigner gratuitement les Ragusains.
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As promised @LauraMorreale, a tweet about effigial tombs in #medieval and #Renaissance #Florence /1 Jacopo della Quercia, Tomb slabs of Lorenzo Trenta (d 1439)
Some of what follows can be found in "The Sepulchralization of Renaissance Florence" in @MIP_medpub Memorializing the Middle Classes in Medieval and Renaissance Europe… /2
In Purgatorio 12.16-21, #Dante describes effigial tombs:
Come, perché di lor memoria sia,
sovra i sepolti le tombe terragne
portan segnato quel ch’elli eran pria,

onde lì molte volte si ripiagne
per la puntura de la rimembranza,
che solo a’ pïi dà de le calcagne /3 Genoese artist, 1350-75. Illustrated Dante. Bodleian Library
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Attending @ISASaxonists' talk for the Early Medieval Identities series. I have officially been given permission to livetweet the talk. #MedievalTwitter
Lol, and my internet just dropped the talk. Reconnecting!
I'm seemingly back. Fingers crossed. Thank goodness the talk is being recorded.

They are introducing Dr. MRO right now.
Read 51 tweets
Tomorrow, @DanielleGAllor is talking to my Intro to Middle English class about medieval disability, trees, & the Middle English fabliau Dame Sirith, from her edition in this @punctum_books book:…

🧵on Dame Sirith & Danielle's edition. #MedievalTwitter
[TW: sexism, rape culture, ref to suicide] Dame Sirith is a weird late-13th-century Middle English fabliau, which is seemingly the first fabliau written in English.

In it, a young clerk asks an old woman, Dame Sirith (who may be a witch), to persuade a woman to love him.
The clerk, Wilekin, wants a woman named Margery to love him while her husband is away. Margery, shocked, refuses and says she will not do it, not "On bedde ne on flore" [on the bed or on the floor].
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**GONNARIO II of Torres**

Thread about the king of Torres who became a monk 👑->⛪ #medievaltwitter #Sardinia #MiddleAge #History #Judicates
Gonnario was born between 1110 and 1114 to the king of Torres, Costantino. We don't know for sure who his mother was. The tradition wants him to be the queen's son but in a document he referred to her as his father's wife, not his mother. It is likely instead that his mother was-
-another woman, another wife or a lover, called Maria De Thori. His not being the queen's son could also explain his troubles in succession.

Written but not trustable sources say he was born to Marcusa de Gunale and Costantino de Lacon after they prayed for a child in Torres-
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Queer ghost story time! A 10th-century monk describes a woman who encountered her dead godmother Marozia in a basilica in Rome & discovered that Marozia had been suffering in Hell, bc she'd forgotten to confess all the sex she'd had with women. #MedievalTwitter Image
This story comes from a letter by noted medieval homophobe & monk Peter Damien, where he described a story a friend told him about a woman in Rome recently who saw her dead grandmother Marozia come out of a basilica dedicated to the Virgin Mary, on a feast day of the Virgin.
This woman intercepts her dead godmother in the street and asks if it is really her. Marozia confirms it's her.

The poor woman asks " are you doing?"

Marozia tells her she's been suffering punishment until just now for sex with women.
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Emmanuel Macron s’est lancé dans un grand tour de France – qui sent bon la pré-campagne présidentielle. Au Moyen Âge, les entrées du souverain dans les villes sont un mode de communication politique privilégié. Un thread ⬇️ ! #histoire #medievaltwitter
Dans le royaume de France, l'entrée royale devient à partir du XIVe siècle un instrument de propagande de plus en plus théâtralisé. Elle demande une préparation soigneuse : on fait nettoyer la ville, repaver les rues, repeindre les portes, etc.
Parfois dans des délais très courts : en 1490, le roi de France Charles VIII écrit à peine une semaine à l’avance aux consuls de Lyon pour les prévenir de son arrivée prochaine !
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🚨 What are the political consequences of pandemics? 🚨

D. Gingerich & I analyze history’s deadliest #pandemic in a brand new @World_Pol article: “Pandemics & Political Development: The Electoral Legacy of the #BlackDeath in Germany”…

#polisciresearch 🧵 Image
Brief summary (#TLDR): The Black Death (BD) had a significant long-term impact on Germany’s political development. Hard-hit areas introduced proto-democratic institutions; sustained experiences with participative government later helped reject antidemocratic & illiberal parties. Image
Long overview (starting here): In 1347, Europe was hit by a pandemic that killed 30–60% of its population: the BD. It had a major impact on medieval society which was based on feudalism/serfdom. Yet the BD’s impact varied greatly across space, leading to divergence in its impact. Image
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WTF Twitter, I told you to be nice to each other while I was on social media hiatus. This is appalling. These men should be ashamed of themselves but they don't have the grace or self-awareness to be. Be better & do better. Bare minimum, call this crap out, #medievaltwitter. NO.
I'd like to point out as well, these are the same bad players we watch flare up every few months or so. Their MO is doxxing people behind the screen of fake accounts and secret groups. They seem pathologically unable to stop. Call it out. NO. #medievaltwitter
Are you sick of hearing about how racist medieval studies is? Are you tired of hearing that "Anglo-Saxons are racist"? Well, THIS IS WHY. Until this kind of terrible behavior is halted, we have a problem we're tacitly condoning. Call it out. NO. #medievaltwitter
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Lectures in medieval law schools can be studied in the apparatus of glosses that appear in the margins of legal manuscripts. This page is from an Italian copy, c. 1180, of Gratian’s Decretum, one of the central texts that formed the basis for lectures. #canonlaw #MedTwitter 1/10
The text is about the canon law of baptism. It is from the third part of the Decretum, which was one of the last additions to Gratian’s book. The long text in the left column that begins with a red capital S in the middle of the column, is by Augustine.2/
Augustine says that “if the water is not blessed” because the person baptizing does not know the proper formula, the water gets blessed anyway, through charity. The baptism will be valid. An important law at a time when priests might not be very literate. Note careful corrections
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🧵Part II in our series of misappropriated medieval/pagan imagery &language by alt/far-right. The more we're aware the more vigilant we can be calling this out. It’s not innocent imagery, but misused by far-right/alt-right/cryptofascists. Feel free to share. #medievaltwitter 1/
Black sun wheel (Sonnerad), adopted by Nazis & very common in far-right circles. Some historians suggest far-right took inspiration from Merovingian decorative sun wheels (ruling fam of Franks in 5th-8th cent.). Recently used to spread #sinophobia regarding #Covid19. 2/
Upper left-right: Look for laurels mixed w/ wyte nationalist symbols. Used by fascists everywhere. Far-right in Greece (G*lden Dawn), Roman laurel, Romanian ‘getae’/Thracian symbol. On right is Finnish version of the swastika, called “Heart of Tursas” from pagan mythology. 3/
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**The origin of Sardinian JUDICATES**

Thread about one of the biggest mystery of Sardinian History. #medievaltwitter #history #MiddleAge

📸 Castle of Serravalle, Bosa Image
Judicates: autonomous, separated kingdoms of medieval Sardinia, bearing the signs of Roman and Byzantine laws in some of their jurisdictions but some also think of older, Nuragic reminiscences. They are famous for being a half-hereditary, half-elective system, where the king's-
-(iudike) possessions were divided from the kingdom's; for the presence of a council of the king and of local civil authorities; for the inheritance of the title to women too.

But how were they born? That's a complicated question because we have a huge hole in local sources.
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Part II. Thread. Medieval White Rage & the Alt-Medieval. #MedievalTwitter #ShakeRace #RaceB4Race #LitPOC I reference Carol Anderson's work b/c she points to how far white grievance will go into violent white rage during Jim Crow & school desegregation. What will white ppl do 27/
if their white privilege & place in their world is seen as "threatened" by BIPOC ppl. They will push back but they also will go to white rage violence to stop it & the change for equity & justice. Medieval Studies has an entire alt-medieval group entirely based on white rage 28/
This next example shows how white "leftists" become radicalized into the far-right universe. Tom McMaster, a.k.a. Gay Girl in Damascus. "Amina" was seen by online activists as queer Islamic feminist activist. Of course it was a racist catfish 29/…
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