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“Bone cancer in children?” That's what Stephen Fry said when asked why he doesn’t believe in God. Pointing to evil in the world and asking why God can’t stop it is the most popular way of rejecting Theism today. But it is not new. It has existed for ages.

1 If God is all knowing, then He knows all the evil in the world. If He's all good, He desires that all evil be removed. If He's all powerful, He can remove it. However, we still see evil in the world. Therefore, one of these attributes can't be true.
RESPONSE to 1 - "Evil" is a moral claim. There's no thing in the universe called an evil. Evil is a judgement upon moral agents and their actions. Rather, what ppl tend to mean when they say "evil" is pain. Pain is something we can objectively assess and discuss.
constant pleasure actually numbs and becomes a source of weakness and pain. So the very absence of pain will actually produce pain.
There are many to pain. W/o pain, there would be no compassion, no sense of hard work or achievement. No achievement means no celebration, and so on.
Pain is not a thing in the universe either; pain is the absence of Divine mercy. Are we entitled to His mercy at all times? Of course not. In fact, the only way we can even identify His mercy is by having it removed from time to time.
Harmful actions are a branch of free-will, which is the greatest gift after life and sanity. (Taking away someone's free-will through imprisonment is universally viewed as harmful and wrong.) But free-will means free-will; it entails the ability to do good, bad, or otherwise.
You can't have free-will then ask why God didn't interfere when someone does something we don't like.
Further, God didn't just leave us to harm ourselves. He sent us Messengers and a Sacred Law for exactly this purpose. But He will not do our work for us or else that would stifle our free-will. We have to voluntarily act upon those laws to stop harm.
Second line of attack: If you find a way out of Problem 1, then you are cornered into Fatalism and Quietism: you should submit to evil because it is from God. Trying to change it would be rebellion against His will.
RESPONSE to 2 - Reason alone can't answer Fatalism. But we have Revelation, which says Divine Will two branches: that which He creates (Irada Kawniyya), and that which please Him (Irada Shar'iyya). Moral agents must make decisions and act solely upon the latter.
If Allah creates a thing, then tells us to fight against it, then we are obeying Him, not rebelling. In the same way, a teacher puts wrong choices on a challenging exam but tells us to fight through them and choose the correct one.
Tests are the only way we can know for sure that we've understood the material. Likewise the tests of life are the only way we can know if we truly believe or not.
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