Discover and read the best of Twitter Threads about #shii

Most recents (24)

Sad to hear that Mahmoud Ayoub (1935-2021) one of the pioneers of #ShiiStudies and #intrafaith and #interfaith #MuslimChristian studies has passed away earlier today - a 🧵
Much of his career was in #MuslimChristian understanding partly influenced by his own biography - born into a #Shii family in Qana in Southern Lebanon in 1935 and converting to Protestantism 2/
He went onto study at #AUB and #Pennsylvania finally writing a PhD on Redemptive Suffering and #Christology as an approach to #ShiiIslam in 1975 at #Harvard 3/
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The seminarian philosopher and polymath Āqā-ye Ḥasan Ḥasanzāde Āmolī (b. 1307Sh/1928) passed away yesterday 25 September 2021 - a 🧵 on his life and works #ShiiPhilosophy #mysticism #ʿerfān #ḥekmat
As his name suggests, he was born in Āmol and began his seminary studies there and only moved to Tehran as a young man in 1950 to continue his studies 2/
In Tehran, he studied philosophy and mysticism with a major teacher at the Madrasa-ye Marvī, Shaykh Muḥammad Taqī Āmolī (1887-1971) best known for his work on #Avicennism and his glosses on Sharḥ al-manẓūme of Hādī Sabzavārī (d. 1873) 3/
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#manuscripts #Shii MS Astan-e Quds-e Razavi 7936 Kitab al-mazar of Ibn al-Mashhadi #pilgrimage_guides 1/
The Kitab al-mazar of Muhammad b. Ja’far al-Mashhadi (d. 594/1198) was a prominent #Shii traditionist who had studied with Ibn Shahrashub (d. 588/1192), Warram b. Abi Firas (d. 605/1208) and Sayyid Ibn Zuhra naqib of Aleppo (d. 585/1189) 2/
He had both a well grounded mastery of the traditions as well as the theology of #Shii Islam 3/
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#manuscripts #Shii_arcana an important genre of writing concerns the arcana of acts of worship (asrār al-ʿibādāt) and here is MS Maktabat al-Imām al-Ḥakīm in Najaf 2032 - a copy of Asrār al-ṣalāt of Ibn Fahd al-Ḥillī (d. 841/1437) 1/ Image
There are a number of classic works in the #Shii tradition on this including works by Sayyid Ḥaydar Āmulī (d. after 786/1385), Qāḍī Saʿīd Qummī (d. 1107/1696) and even recently Āyatullāh Khumaynī (d. 1989) 2/ ImageImageImageImage
Ibn Fahd was a prominent jurist and pivot of disseminating legal and ethical thought in the 14th century between #Iraq #Iran #JabalʿĀmil and a number of his students were from #EasternArabia - this is an important study 3/ ImageImageImageImage
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#manuscripts #ShiiLaw this is a collection of the works of Shaykh Luṭfullāh al-Maysī (d. 1032/1622) MS Kitābkhānah-yi Burūjirdī in Qum 255 1/ Image
Shaykh Luṭfullāh was a jurist in the age of Shāh ʿAbbās and is perhaps best known to posterity through his mosque in the Maydan-e naqsh-e jahān in #Isfahan 2/ Image
Shaykh Luṭfullāh was born in Mays in Jabal ʿĀmil (southern Lebanon) and migrated with his grandfather Ibrāhīm to the Safavid realms and #Mashhad where he studied and where he was appointed briefly as a custodians of the endowments associated with the shrine 3/
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#manuscripts #ijazat are extremely significant sources for #intellectual_history MS Mar’ashi Qum 6446 1/ ImageImageImageImage
This is a license to transmit #hadith of Sayyid Husayn Kashani dated Sha’ban 1288/1871 2/
The test begins with #hadith on the importance of transmitting #knowledge of the #Imams 3/ ImageImageImageImage
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#manuscripts MS King Abdul Aziz Library Riyadh 906 #IslamicPhilosophy Mawdih al-diraya Li-sharh bab al-hidaya of Ibn Abi Jumhur al-Ahsa’i (d. 909/1503) 1/ ImageImageImage
IAJ was a prolific author in theology #fiqh philosophy on the cusp of the #Safavid period and there is a Institute devoted to publishing his work based in al-Ahsa headed by Sayyid ‘Ali al-Musa 2/ ImageImage
His best known works are his massive al-Mujli a combination of insights from #Shii #kalam #Avicennism #IshraqiPhilosophy and the #Sufism of #IbnArabi 3/ ImageImage
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#manuscripts this is a copy of Sayyid Muḥammad ʿAbbās al-Jazāʾirī work on #epistolatry #inshāʾ in Arabic and Persian entitled al-Ẓill al-mamdūd - MS Marʿashī (Qum) 6644 - a short thread on him #ShiiIntellectualHistory #NorthIndia 1/ ImageImageImageImage
The #intellectual_history of the #Shiʿa in North India was covered well by the late Saiyad Athar Abbas Rizvi and he devotes a few pages to him in vol 2 2/ ImageImage
Justin Jones in his book on #Shiʿi politics in colonial North India also discusses him briefly 3/ ImageImage
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Something went wrong with the thread on #Qurʾan #exegesis in #Urdu so let me try to reconstruct the remaining tweets 9/
First I want to mention perhaps the earliest proper #Shii exegesis was ʿUmdat al-bayān of Maulvī ʿAmmār ʿAlī (1828-1889) who has studied in Lucknow with Mumtāz al-ʿulamāʾ Sayyid Muḥammad Ibrāhīm (1819-1972) and later taught in Lahore and Delhi - I haven't located a copy 10/
From the 1970s we have the rather literary exegesis of the prolific Sayyid Ẓafar Ḥasan Amrohī (d. 1989) who worked extensively in India before moving to Pakistan in 1950 11/ Image
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Despite the fact that there are at least 80 million native speakers of #Urdu and that it is a language used in #Muslim seminaries as far a field as #SouthAfrica #UK and #Myanmar there seems to be little scholarship on Urdu #QuranExegesis and translation - a thread 1/
The earliest translations seem to have been completed in #NorthIndia by Shāh ʿAbd al-Qādir (d. 1815), son of the famous Shāh Walīullāh (d. 1762) but lesser known is the contemporary translation by the #Shii scholar Sayyid ʿAlī (1785-1823), son of Sayyid Dildār ʿAlī (d. 1820) 2/ Image
The former remains in print and this is due to the easy to read language - the latter has not remained in print due to its high Persianate style and was quickly superseded by the translations of Maulānā Farmān ʿAlī (1853-1916) and Sayyid Maqbūl Aḥmad Dihlavī (1870-1921) 3/ ImageImage
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#manuscripts #Shii #PositiveLaw #fiqh for much of the middle period through the #Safavid period the main text for the introductory study of the law was al-Lumʿa al-Dimashqīya of the #FirstMartyr #ShahīdAwwal Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad Ibn Makkī al-Jizzīnī al-ʿĀmilī (d. 1384) 1/
#ShahīdAwwal famously wrote this work in prison in Damascus - and there has always been a sense that he may have had some links with the #Shii #Sarbadar rulers of Khurasan for whom he may have written it as a manual to implement… 2/ Image
On #ShahīdAwwal the #Shia of Syria and his execution see this excellent article by Stefan Winter in the #MamlukStudiesReview… 3/
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Madinat al-‘Ilm seems to have been an early #ShiiHadith encyclopaedia compiled by Ibn Babawayh al-Shaykh al-Saduq (d. 991) but which has not been extant since the later 16thC 1/
Recently a recovered text based on citations has been published… 2/
The early #Shii bibliographies all mention the text and that it was voluminous and larger than Man la yahduruhu l-Faqih - 10 to 4 in ratio 3/
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#manuscript #IslamicateMedicine an autograph of Muhammad Sharif Khatunabadi from the family of Bagir Majlisi on medical reports from the Prophet and Imams 1/ Image
MS Mar’ashi (Qum) 14597 dated 1111/1700 entitled Tuhfat al-abrar with paratext by the current librarian Sayyid Mahmud Mar’ashi 2/ Image
Andrew Newman (Edinburgh) has written on this genre of works and the rise of interest in the #Safavid period as part of the recovery of the #Shii heritage 3/
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One of the genres of writing that emerged in #Safavid Iran was triumphalist #Shii history and biographies that imagined a past connected to the sacred time of the Prophet and the Imams as continuous chains of notables figures who made contributions to #Islamic culture 1/
Perhaps the best example was the large work Majālis al-muʾminīn of Sayyid Nūrullāh Shūshtarī known as Qāżī Nūrullāh (d. 1610), scion of the Marʿashī sayyids, who settled in India, becoming judge in #Lahore and eventually dying, following the wrath of #Jahangir in #Agra 2/ ImageImageImage
The Majālis was written late in his life, a large #Shii history divided into (not surprisingly #12erShii) 12 sections: 1) places associated with the #Imams and #Shii communities such as #Kūfa #Kāshān and so forth 2) #Shii tribes and sayyids such as his own #Marʿashī lineages 3/
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As a follow-up to a thread on the #GunābādīNiʿmatullāhī order and #ShiiSufism some thoughts on Maʿṣūm ʿAlī Shāh (d. 1926) the famous 'historian' of Sufism 1/
His father Raḥmat ʿAlī Shāh (d. 1861) came at the end of a scholarly lineage of #Niʿmatullāhī Shaykhs: Muḥammad Jaʿfar Majdhūb ʿAlī Shāh (d. 1824), Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn Shīrvānī Mast ʿAlī Shāh (d. 1838), and Raḥmat ʿAlī Shāh himself all of whom had good relations at court2/
Majdhūb ʿAlī Shāh was closely linked to the traditional seminarian philosophers in Isfahan and Tehran and wrote a scholarly polemic against Henry Martyn (d. 1812) called Mirʾāt al-ḥaqq…مجذوب-علي-شاه 2a/
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Back in 2011 I was standing on a pavement in Qum taking a picture of a small car park - and being rather quick about it - because until a few years before it had been a centre for the #Gunābādī #Sufis - a thread on #Shii #Sufism 1/
The place of #Sufism within a #Shii context since the #Safavid period has increasingly become contested but orders have survived into the present and different levels of accommodation found in post-79 #Iran 2/ ImageImageImage
The late Leonard Lewisohn's two part article in #BSOAS is a useful if at times polemical summary of the #Sufi orders in modern Iran and their history… 3/
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@docstobar examines Iranian experiments with metaphysics that question the way in which institutions engage with #occult #scientific #rational #empiricist an embrace of #new_age spirituality and a rise in #irfan and its #empiricismoftheheart - a thread on #irfan in #Iran 1/ Image
It shows that our assumption of disenchantment in which the separation from the #scientific from the #occult does not preclude the possibility of the #modern scientist-rammal nor the embrace by the modern empiricist of the illiterate-savant-gnostic-sage 2/
It also suggests that the official seminary’s promotion of a modern viable #Shii_reason clashes with its own #mystical commitments and their popularity 3/
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Recent works have raised interest in the #Shia of #SouthAsia especially the intellectual history of the elites - a thread on the #Shii religious establishment and elites in #SouthAsia 1/
For a long time the best and more comprehensive account was that of the Indian scholar based in Australia Saiyad Athar Abbas Rizvi (d. 1986) a two volume work 2/
But what is very helpful to understand the development of the religious establishment and its politics have been recent publications coming out of #Qum and #Najaf 3/
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#Jafr is a set of divinatory and prognostic occult practices - a science associated with the Imams of the family of the #Prophet #Ahlulbayt that comprises #lettrism and other methods 1/
The science is often associated with esoteric teachings of Imam ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib and Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq and found in #Sunni and #Shii circles such as the popular al-Jafr al-jami’ 2/ Image
Such texts circulate not only in Arabic but in other languages used for sacred and learned purposes by Muslims including #Urdu 3/ Image
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I often see hardcore #Sunni accounts condemning the #Shia, for the latter "denigrate the #sahaba," the Prophet's companions.

They can't realize that this is because the Shia have a different version of the history of early Islam.

And the Sunni history is just another version.
Personally, I would not condemn any of the early figures in Islam - but I would not sacralize them either.

#Ali and #Aisha went to war over power. The all glorious sahaba killed each other for power. Obviously this was a very human history, whose full truth we may never know.
Whether you are #Sunni or #Shii, the immediate post-Prophetic Islam isn't too rosy.

It includes coercive wars (on "ridda"), nepotism, tribalism, assassination, and lots of intra-Muslim bloodshed.

So, to say that Islam brought a "perfect political system" isn't convincing.
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One major aspect of #Corbin was his long association from 1949-1978 with the #Eranos Tagungen, a circle of scholars of the human and religious sciences who met at Lago Maggiore near Ascona at the estate of Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn (1881-1962) 1/ Image
In one sense it was a stellar collection of the leading scholars in the humanities of the 20thC but especially of those committed to esotericism - an alternative intellectual history of the period as Hans Hakl puts it… 2/
#Fröbe had long been interested in the occult and archetypes and was a theosophist and spiritualist who ran a salon in #Zurich from 1914 3/
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#Corbin was not a thinker whose influences and interests were easily compartmentalised but rather his #Protestantism, #existentialism interest in #mysticism #RussianOrthodoxPhilosophy all came together in his study of #IranianIslam 1/
With respect to #phenomenology and #existentialism from Germany as well as #Hegelianism these were mediated by Alexander Koyré and Alexandre Kojève (1902-1968) both Russian exiles trained in Germany and teaching at #EPHE 2/ Image
From Kojève he first came to understand the #phenomenology of #EdmundHusserl (1859-1938) who also taught #Heidegger as well as #KarlJaspers (1883-1969) who taught at #Heidelberg before being blacklisted by the Nazis 3/ ImageImage
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Henry Corbin (1903-1978) remains an important influence on my reading of #philosophy and the #Shii tradition and after a quick presentation of his intellectual formation 1/ Image
I will present #Corbin relationship to #Protestant theology, #existentialism and #phenomenology #orthodox #Russian philosophy and theology before considering his engagement in #Iranian #Islam and its philosophies 3/
He studied philosophy at the famous section Ve (sciences religieuses) at the #ÉcolePratiquedesHautesÉtudes with Étienne Gilson (1884-1978), éminent medievalist and #Thomist, graduating in 1925 4/ Image
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Classics of #IslamicPhilosophy #IslamicMysticism translation of the so-called #TafsirIbnArabi which is in fact #Tawilat of #AbdalRazzaqKashani (d. c. 1336) translated by Sayyid Javad Hashimi ‘Ulya in 2016 #Intisharat_e_mawla 1/ Image
Anyone who reads this carefully especially on the question of the #Mahdi cannot help but wonder about the notion that #Kashani was not #Shii as discussed by #PierreLory… 2/
The same translator rendered the classic #JamialAsrar of Sayyid Haydar Amuli (d. after 1385) into Persian in 1998 which provides the metaphysical argument for the complete compatibility of #ShiiIslam with #IbnArabiSchool 3/ Image
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