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Black Archaeology @blackarcheology
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The African Queen Who Put The Fear Of God Into the Roman Empire.

Amanirenas was the queen of the Kingdom of Kush. Her full name and title was #Amnirense qore li kdwe li ("Ameniras, Qore and Kandake").

She reigned from about 40 BCE to 10 BCE.…
(The Meroitic Stela )

“The Stela is a colossal sandstone stela found at #Hamadab south of the ancient site of Meroë in Sudan. Now kept at the British Museum, the significance resides in the fact that it is inscribed with one of the longest known texts in #Meroitic script.”
The stela is in good condition, although part of the top is missing. The upper part includes a frieze showing the Kushite rulers Queen Amanirenas and Prince Akinidad facing various Egyptian deities including #Amun and #Mut.
Kushite Queen of Meroe
Relief Amanishakheto Munich on
Stele of Amanishakheto (center) from the temple of Amun in Naqa.
When Roman emperor Augustus levied a tax on the Kushites in 24 BC, Amanirenas and her son, Akinidad, led an army of 30,000 men to sack the Roman fort in the Egyptian city of Aswan.
“Found in a ruined building south of Meroe. It is largely indecipherable but the names of Queen Amanirenas and prince Akinidad are recognisable.“
The First Kush/Roman Battles

Aelius Gallus, the chief magistrate, of Egypt, was absent on a campaign in Arabia in 24 BC, when the Kushites launched an attack on Egypt. Amanirenas and Akinidad defeated Roman forces at Syene and Philae, and drove the Jews from Elephantine Island.
Neil MacGregor refers to Strabo's account of a "fierce one-eyed queen Candace" capturing a series of Roman forts in southern 25 BC Egypt. Her army returned with a bronze depiction of Augustus' head, taken from a statue of the Roman emperor.
She then "buried the severed head of the glorious Augustus beneath the steps of a temple dedicated to victory."

The head, found in Meroë in 1912, now resides in the British Museum.
Petronius' Nubian Campaign

The Kushites were driven out of Syene later in the year by Gaius Petronius, who now held the office of Roman Prefect in Egypt. According to a detailed report made by Strabo, the Roman troops advanced far into Kush, and finally reached Napata.
“Although they withdrew again to the north they left behind a garrison in Qasr Ibrim (Primis), which now became the border of the Roman Empire.

The Kushites made a renewed attempt to seize Primis, but Petronius forestalled this attempt.”
Following this event, negotiations began.

The Meroites sent mediators to Augustus, who was then in Samos, and in the year 21/20 BC a peace treaty was concluded. It was strikingly favorable to the Meroites in that they were exempted from having to pay tribute to the Emperor.
“Queen Amanirenas was noted for leading from the front, fighting side by side with her own soldiers. Her initial campaign was hugely successful, defeating three Roman cohorts and sacking a number of Roman forts across southern Egypt.”
The warrior queen, Amanirenas is remembered for her loyal combat, fighting side by side with her own soldiers. She was blinded in one eye after she was wounded by a Roman.
However, the full extent of the Roman humiliation has yet to be disclosed since the Kushite account of the war, written in the Meroitic script, has not been fully decoded.…
The Land of Nubia

“Over the millennia a series of cultures and kingdoms rose and fell in Nubia”…
In the Bible, "Cush" is alternately identified in Scripture with the Kingdom of Kush, ancient Sudan, and/or the Arabian Peninsula.

“Can the Cushite change his skin?" in Jeremiah 13:23 implies brown skin color; also, Septuagint uniformly translates Cush as Αἰθιοπία "Aithiopia."
Young Sudanese rediscovering the country's ancient history - BBC News

On a side note 📝 - Giuseppe Ferlini, an Italian treasure hunter raided and vandalized - with dynamite 🧨 - several pyramids of Meroë.

He was looking for treasure.…
The Lost Kingdoms of Africa -
The Kingdom of Nubia

If you ever want to be remembered — make history: Decipher the Meroitic Stela found at Hamadab — now in the British Museum.

“Meroitic was the principle language of the Kingdom of Kush. Poorly understood by modern scholars, today it remains undeciphered.”

(photographer Udimu)
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