Discover and read the best of Twitter Threads about #Roman

Most recents (24)

#EpigraphyTuesday Spring has Sprung!🌷 This delicately punched piece of copper alloy, 8cm (ca. the width of a credit card) shows how #Roman soldiers on Hadrian's wall measured the passing seasons.
But what is it? 🧵1/4
🏛️📷 @VindolandaTrust
@VindolandaTrust @DocCrom @roamintheempire @AncientRomeLive @TheClassicalCo Answer: We're not entirely sure. It was probably part of a larger ring (ca. 35cm in total), which roughly labelled the days (K), weeks (N), mid-month (Id) & the equinox (Ae). Some suggest that it was a clock, others a calendar... 2/4

📷Labels added.…
@VindolandaTrust @DocCrom @roamintheempire @AncientRomeLive @TheClassicalCo Found in a granary, it could have helped to time night watches, but the precious timepiece was likely in the principia (headquarters), used as a celestial calendar (horologium) or an anaphoric clock. This image of control was also in Rome: showing the same equinox (in Greek) 3/4. This small fragment of Augustus "horologium" or &q
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#thread #fantasy #sfff #sagas #séries #roman #lecture #mardiconseil #mardilecture
1/4 Aux forges de Vulcain publie plusieurs sagas ou séries. C'est le moyen d'accompagner une autrice ou en auteur dans la construction d'une oeuvre. Tout d'abord : le cycle de la Tour de garde.
#thread #fantasy #sfff #sagas #séries #roman #lecture #mardiconseil #mardilecture
2/4 Ensuite : les aventures de Lord Cochrane : des capes, des épées et des tentacules !
#thread #fantasy #sfff #sagas #séries #roman #lecture #mardiconseil #mardilecture
3/4 Et aussi : l'intégrale méthodique de la traduction de la fiction de William Morris.
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In 205 BC it (#Rome) announced that the #Sibylline books for-told that Hannibal would leave Italy if the #Magnamator, a form of the goddess #Cybele should be brought from #Phrygian pescemes to Rome.
Atlas king of Perhamom consented. The #BlackStone which was believed to be incarnation of the Great Mother was shipped to Austia where it was received with impressive ceremony by Scipio Africanus and a band of virtuous matrons.

Cesar to Christ

The Senate was shocked
to find that the new divinity
had to be served
by self emasculated priests.
Such men were found
but no Roman
was allowed to be among them.

The High Preist / Priestess
of #Cybele:
Called the #Galli

#Phrygian hat
Read 5 tweets
Travel in the ancient and medieval Roman world came with a twist: trips of greater distance could be accomplished in less time than trips of shorter distance depending on certain variables. Read this 🧵 for the general rules of Roman travel time. #Roman #Byzantine #History The user interface of the ORBIS tool.
I once described the journey from Constantinople to Dara in Mesopotamia as "particularly cumbersome." The itinerary that best combined comfort and speed was to sail from Constantinople around the coast of Anatolia to Seleukia by the Sea, and then proceed overland to Dara. A map from ORBIS showing the sea/land route from Constantino
This trip covered ~2,150 kilometers and took about 18 days. This trip was about the longest one could take and still be within the Eastern Roman Empire. The map below shows routes from Constantinople to other major sites within the empire which were ALL shorter in duration. A map from ORBIS showing the routes from Constantinople to A
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👀💭My video from the #archaeological discovery made on the #Miami River. The findings include 7,000-year-old spearheads, abundant evidence of indigenous settlements in the area dating back to the time of the emergence of the 1st cities in #Mesopotamia, & before the Roman Empire.
👀💭 P1: Quote from the site: "You're going back to the time of the emergence of the first cities in #Mesopotamia. It's thousands of years before the Roman Republic and the #Roman Empire. By any measure, this is an early manifestation of human activity. This is legitimately old." ImageImageImageImage
👀💭 P2: Although the dig is not yet complete on the #Miami River's south bank just west of the #Brickell Avenue bridge, are already recasting what #anthropologists and #historians thought they knew about the presence of prehistoric and #indigenous people here. #Archaeology ImageImage
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(1/16) Today again a more theoretical thread about #Germanic #history. It is about a theory of the origin of the first Germanic major #tribes:
the #Iron and #Amber theory!

(Many used images are from external sources, which I will gladly share if needed.) ImageImage
(2/16) But let's start from the beginning. What is a #Germanic "major #tribe" anyway?
Around the year 0, hundreds of small #tribes lived in #Germania. About 400 years later, however, they were seemingly replaced by a few large tribes, such as the #Goths, #Franks, or #Alemanni. Image
(3/16) #Researchers therefore asked themselves early on how this development had come about. It was usually assumed that #Germanic #tribes living near the #borders of the #Roman #Empire formed #raiding parties, in order to be able to undertake more successful #raids. ImageImage
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(1/23) This thread is mainly addressed to my #German followers, but it could also be interesting for those who always wanted to know how Germany could become the most culturally leftist country on the European continent. Accordingly, this thread is a #political #commentary by me.
(2/23) It is about the historical personality of the first post-war chancellor, Konrad Adeneauer. I also would like to finally dispel a myth that still plagues German conservatives, by which I do not mean recationaries, but all those who do not want to destroy their own country.
(3/23) This myth is the myth of the "good old", #50s and #60s, #CDU (Christian Democratic Party) and the question of what role a post-war #Germany could have played if #Adenauer and his party had not made completely wrong decisions about essential political directions.
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You are a #Roman soldier born in province of Dalmatia (modern-day #Croatia). Most of your life you've spent on the Adriatic coast, in the warm Mediterranean climate. It is a paradise on Earth. And it is the heartland of the mighty #RomanEmpire.

Your life is about to change... /1
Then, your emperor, great #Hadrian, commands you and your unit to move. Not to the East, where you could still enjoy all benefits of civilization. Or to Africa, also a place to be.

No, Hadrian dispatches you to the ends of the known world. To the cold and hostile Brittania /2
Precisely, you and your unit are sent to man the furthermost part of the northern frontier. To the Hadrian wall, which is nearing its completion. In the following decade, you will guard this remote outpost against the barbarian threat. /3
Read 7 tweets
Agrigento-Southern Wall
In the C6th BC, fortified walls were initially carved into the bedrock with standing stone block walls of 1.5 metres thick, at 12 km long, encircling the Greek city of Akragas. During 5th-4th BC it…(1/3).
#Archaeology #Roman #TombTuesday #Sicily
.. incorporated towers, ramparts, barracks, cisterns, hidden passages and underground channels. In the Late Roman period (from C4th AD), parts of the wall fell into disrepair and were adapted for use, including tombs and dwellings. From C4th-7th AD..
.. it held an Early Christian cemetery. These arcosolia tombs often had decorated painted plaster ceilings, usually holding 2-3 burials and were closed by a horizontal slab (mensa). This type of arcosolium being above ground is known as ‘sub divo’ (open air).
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قصر بشیر ، اردن___چوتھی صدی عیسوی
Q'Sar-i-Bashir, Jordan__4th AD
اردن کےصحرامیں واقع حیران کن حدتک محفوظ چوتھی صدی کا تنہا کھڑا رومن قلعہ قصر بشیر (Q’Sar Bashir) جوکہ کبھی، کسی بھی تہذیب میں دوبارہ تعمیرنہیں ھوا۔
موبین (Mobene) کے نام سے مشہور
قصر بشیر کی دیواریں اب بھی جگہ جگہ سے 20 فٹ تک بلند ہیں، جبکہ مرکزی دروازہ آج بھی زمانوں کے تھپیڑوں کے باوجود قائم ھے۔ کونے کے بڑے بڑے مینار اب بھی زمین سے دو منزلہ اوپر اٹھتے ہیں۔
اس صحرائی قلعے کے آئیڈیا میں اردن کی زمین کی ساخت نے دفاع میں ایک بڑا کردار ادا کیا۔
قوی امکان ھے
کہ قصر بشیر اصل میں ایک معاون گھڑسوار یونٹ کا گھر تھا، جس پر رومی سرحد کے دفاع اور آس پاس کے علاقے کی نگرانی کا الزام تھا۔ فوجی اوپری منزل پر سوتے تھے جب کہ گراؤنڈ فلور پر رہنے والوں کے بارے میں خیال ھے کہ وہ اصطبل تھے۔
جیسے جیسے روم مشرق کی طرف پھیلتا گیا اسے عرب سرحد کے ساتھ
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#Roman bust of #Alexander the Great, excavated from Herculaneum.

Blenheim Palace Oxfordshire, UK
It seems that the picture is a little refined to cover some imperfections on the face.
Blenheim palace looks amazing, I would love to visit.…
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1/19 “The most brutal crimes are committed by #Chechens. Inhuman cruelty is not a Russian tradition". The leader of the #Vatican Jorge Mario Bergoglio (aka Francis, aka #Pope of Rome) made a statement shocking in its falsity and abomination.
2/19 In an interview with #America Magazine, the Jesuit announced that, it turns out, "the most brutal crimes in #Ukraine are committed by #Chechens and Buryats, because inhuman cruelty is not a #Russian tradition."
3/19 At the same time, the #Catholic priest explained his unwillingness to directly accuse #Russia of invading #Ukraine by the fact that it is "already clear." And he tries "not to specify, so as not to offend ... It is not necessary that I put the name and surname."
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On or around this date in 536, the Roman army of Belisarius stormed the city of Naples and put many to the sword, ending a 21 day siege and opening up the road to the Eternal City. Why such a bloody resolution to this siege? Read on. #Roman #Byzantine #History #Italy 🇮🇹 Naples today, photo from Time Travel Turtle.
When Belisarius and the Roman army arrived before Naples, they were riding a string of successes. Cities across Sicily and southern Italy had submitted immediately and willingly to the Roman force, as I described in the quoted tweet below.
In fact, it is hard to escape the conclusion that Belisarius' march from the toe of Italy to Naples must have taken on the character of a victory parade. And yet, here at Naples, the Roman army would encounter its first real resistance. The ruins of ancient Roman Naples, underneath San Lorenzo Ma
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This week Americans celebrate Thanksgiving. How did a sixth-century Roman give thanks? One way was a charitable gift that commemorated the event for which the donor was grateful. In this 🧵, two examples: Belisarius and Theodora. #Roman #Byzantine #History #Thanksgiving Detail of a sixth-century man, probably Belisarius, from theDetail of Theodora, from the imperial panel mosaic in San Vi
1) Perhaps in 537, Belisarius gifted the See of St. Peter, via Pope Vigilius, a jewel-encrusted gold cross weighing 100 pounds. A clue that this was a thanks offering is that the cross was inscribed with the details of Belisarius' recent victory over the Vandals (533-534). Belisarius in the palace of the Vandals in Carthage. Artwork
This cross sadly does not survive today, but a processional gold cross from a later era (ca. 1000) may give some indication of what it looked like. This beauty is held in the @metmuseum:… A gold processional cross, held in the Met.
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November 14: #OTD in 565, the emperor Justinian I died at the ripe age of 83, having reigned 38 years. On this anniversary of his death, I warn you all to beware of "Justinophobes." Read on. ⬇️ #Roman #Byzantine #History Detail of Justinian, from t...
First, credit to @mathieugallard, from whom I borrow the term "Justinophobe." What is a Justinophobe? A person who fears or disdains the emperor Justinian to an almost irrational degree.
I am afraid that the work of some modern historians has encouraged some of the public to veer toward Justinophobia.
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A small collection of #Roman Rings💍
#Archaeology Image
1/ Octahedral diamond ring made of gold. 3rd - early 4th century CE.

©MET, New York Image
2/ Carnelian Intaglio with a female head with long curls, identified as Galene (personification of calm at sea). 1st century CE

©Phoenix Ancient Art Image
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The first campaign of Belisarius in Italy (535-540) was wildly successful, restoring most of the peninsula to Roman rule. Did the inhabitants of Italy welcome this? One way to answer that question is to visualize how Belisarius took cities in Italy. 🧵 #Roman #Byzantine #History A screenshot of the map pro...
Today I introduce a small digital history mapping project that does just that. The image shown in the first tweet of this thread is an overview of the map. The map shows every city or region of Italy mentioned during the campaign by the historian Procopius of Caesarea. #dh Detail of the map project i...
The pins for cities and regions are color coded based on how long it took Belisarius and the Roman army to take control of the location. Green represents no effort (instantaneous submission), yellow represents a short siege, orange a medium siege, and red a long siege.
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Ostrogothic Italy in 526 was a successful, flourishing kingdom. By the time Roman forces had finished reclaiming the bulk of Italy in 555, the prosperity of the peninsula was ruined. Some modern historians blame Justinian. Is that fair? A 🧵 #Roman #Byzantine #Italy 🇮🇹 Vintage map showing the Ost...
First, we start with a brief historical overview. The Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy, founded by Theodoric the Great (r. 493-526), was an early medieval successor state of the Western Roman Empire. Under Theodoric, the kingdom became rich and prosperous. The Senigallia Medallion, f...
The death of Theodoric, followed by the death of his grandson and successor Athalaric in 534, led to political destabilization in the kingdom. Both Athalric's mother, Amalsuntha, and her murderer and successor, Theodahad, contemplated ceding Italy to the Roman Empire.
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I am shocked at the passionate response to my tweets about the Byzantine Empire being the Roman Empire. So today, a related issue: not recognizing the #Roman identity of the #Byzantine Empire creates problems for our understanding of the early Middle Ages. 🧵 #History Map of the early medieval M...
While many specialists of Byzantine history may assume that everyone knows that the people we call "Byzantines" were actually Romans, this knowledge has not fully permeated to the level where most people encounter the Byzantines: secondary school and university survey textbooks. Book cover of Western Civil...Book cover of Western Civil...
At this level, in classes like European History, Western Civilization, or World History, the early Middle Ages is sometimes presented as the era of the "three heirs" of Rome. These heirs are identified as the Byzantine Empire, the early medieval West, and the Islamic caliphate. Table of contents for "...Table of contents for "...
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Was the Byzantine Empire really just the Roman Empire? In a word, yes. In this thread, I explore some arguments for and against that answer, as well as alternatives to the use of the term "Byzantine." Read on. 🧵 #Roman #Byzantine #History Map of the Byzantine Empire...
The people that modern historians call "Byzantines" referred to themselves as Romans and to their state as the empire of the Romans. They were Romans, through and through. Then why have modern historians adopted the terms "Byzantine" and "Byzantine Empire?" Cartoon depicting time-trav...
In the medieval west, standard terms for the "Byzantine" Empire were "empire of Constantinople" and "empire of the Greeks." They were used to avoid calling the "Byzantines" Romans, because westerners wished that label for themselves.
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Cuperem…aliquem vitrearium ostendere, qui spiritu vitrum in habitus plurimos format qui vix diligenti manu effingerentur”. #Seneca, Letters, xc, 31. Στο απόσπασμα αυτό, ο Σενέκας θαυμάζει τον υαλουργό, ο οποίος μόνο με την ανάσα του δίνει σχήμα στο γυαλί🔽
με τρόπο που ούτε το πιο επιδέξιο χέρι δεν μπορεί.
Είναι γεγονός ότι οι Ρωμαίοι αξιοποίησαν στο έπακρο το γυαλί ως πρώτη ύλη για την κατασκευή ειδών πολυτελείας ή καθημερινής χρήσης. Μπουκάλια, βάζα, κύπελλα και τεφροδόχοι, διασώζονται σε τεράστιο αριθμό και ποικιλία.🔽
Στην καθημερινή ζωή των Ρωμαίων, κατά τη διάρκεια του 1ου αι. μ.Χ., το γυαλί συναγωνιζόταν την κεραμική στην εγχώρια αγορά, καθώς χρησιμοποιούνταν για την κατασκευή μπουκαλιών, πιάτων, λυχναριών, κυπέλλων, τεφροδόχων και δοχείων αποθήκευσης διαφόρων αντικειμένων και τροφίμων,🔽
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۲۴ طرح و نقش ایرانی که از چین تا روم برای چند صد سال استفاده میشده |

Iranian Identity: 24 #Iranian motifs & designs used for centuries from ancient China to Rome. |

1: 3-dot or 3-pearl motif: Very popular in Sasanian Iran...

⤵️🧵 Image
It's likely an aniconic representation of the Iranian, Zoroastrian deity Tishtrya | تیشتَر , though at times it could have taken a simple astronomical meaning as well

Spot it on clothing!

1: 3-dot or 3-pearl motif

Undoubtedly, this design is Iranian, #Sasanian or possibly pre-Sasanian in origin.

Representations at Taqe Bostan, including on clothing of Ahura Mazda. These parts of Taqe Bostan are associated with Khosrow II (570-628)

Given internal...

⤵️ ImageImageImageImage
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Human beings always had two inherent needs −

1️⃣ To communicate and share information
2️⃣ To communicate selectively.

Thus, the rise of #cryptography.

Origins of cryptography – a thread 🧵 Origins of cryptography
The word ‘cryptography’ was coined by combining two Greek words, ‘Krypto’ meaning hidden and ‘graphene’ meaning writing.

Cryptography can be defined as the art and science of concealing the messages to introduce secrecy in information.
The art of cryptography is considered to be born along with the art of writing.

As civilizations evolved & human beings got organized, the ideas of power, politics & secrecy emerged.

These ideas further fueled the natural need of people to communicate #privately.
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My overview and analysis of *all* the archaeological evidence for wine production in pre-Roman and #Roman Italy!

A highlight thread… 🧵

Full article OPEN ACCESS in the American Journal of Archaeology:
The first attempt to combine all disparate forms of evidence in Italy, we start pre-Roman. Localised grape exploitation and experimentation probably occurred to a greater extent in Italy than historically accepted, alongside Caananite, Phoenician and Greek influence. /2 Image
The latest evidence indicates vine cultivation increasingly likely from the Final Bronze Age, & exploitation of various forms present perhaps as early as the Neolithic. The paper aims to reframe these terms in a consistently rigorous manner with multidisciplinary datasets. /3
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