Discover and read the best of Twitter Threads about #aurangzeb

Most recents (24)

Thread 1 : #JavedAkhtar

Stands in SOLIDARITY with MF Husain, NEVER once condemns his portrayal of Hindu gods. But on Salman Rushdie, says: "You CANNOT speak in a derogatory manner; write DIRTY things about those who are REVERED by billions." ImageImage
Thread- 2
says "You can't speak in a derogatory manner; write DIRTY things about those who are REVERED by billions."

But he accepts an award named on the man who speaks in a derogatory manner; writes DIRTY things about those who are REVERED by billions

Thread- 3 #JavedAkhtar #Atheism

Stands for Freedom of Expression of ALL the writers of the world, condemns ban on their work. But wants a writer SACKED because he sees her work as communal.

That's @Javedakhtarjadu style rationalism.

Read 62 tweets
A rise in scholarship and research on India’s Islamic #history - and on the Mughals in particular - continues to inform and enrich our understanding of the period between the 10th and 18th C, when India’s geographical extent formed Asia’s most robust Islamicate region.
While new works by eminent scholars like Prof. Richard Eaton and Dr. @AudreyTruschke have further contributed to this development, classic works by doyens of the Aligarh School and many others continue to stand their ground as repositories for our understanding of this period.
I am often asked about book recommendations for the Medieval and Mughal period in India’s history, and have composed a #thread of some of my favourite ‘essential readings’ - by no means complete - on this period, which spanned over 8 centuries.
I hope you enjoy it.
🧵 #History
Read 14 tweets
Alamgir #Aurangzeb

Temple destruction thread.

Starting with Krishnajanmabhoomi , Mathura
Temple destruction in Jodhpur by the hundreds

Ref : Masir e Alamgiri
Same book

Read 17 tweets
In this thread I respond to a thread questioning the authenticity of Emperor #Aurangzeb’s (RA) farman relating to Benaras that I tweeted about earlier.
I also seek to explain how pamphleteers - with the aid of garden variety trolls - try and discredit anyone not of their own ilk.
While Hindutva required scant evidence for the Emperor Babur having razed a temple to build the Babri Masjid, its adherents label any historical evidence that is remotely critical of their world view as “a forgery”, “unreliable”, “questionable” etc.
So be it; here’s the evidence.
1. What is known as the “Benaras Farman” has been cited by no less a historian than Sir Jadunath Sarkar - whom many latter day “Nationalists” admire glowingly - as authentic. Apart from that, historians from DC Phillott to Richard Eaton have affirmed its authenticity.
Read 8 tweets
Mughal Quotes:

“Do not fail to make the most of an opportunity that presents itself. Indolence and luxury do not suit kingship. Conquest tolerates not inaction; the world is his who hastens most.”

Emperor #Babur in a letter to his son Humayun 1527.
The Baburnāma. Sec 348.

“Let not difference of religion interfere with policy, and be not violent in inflicting retribution”

Emperor #Akbar in his letter to Prince Murad on the latter’s taking charge of Malwa.
Akbarnāma. Vol III. 598
Written in 1591.

“The time of permanency passes away like the wind in the desert. Misery and happiness, beauty and ugliness, pass away. Everything in the world perishes...”

Emperor #Aurangzeb in a letter to his grandson, Bidār Bakht.
Ruqa’āt-i-Alamgiri, Letter LXXIX

Read 4 tweets
The 6th Mughal Emperor Aurangzēb “Alamgīr” was born on this day in 1618 in the province of Gujarat.
At the time of his birth his father, the Emperor Shah Jehan ruled over the #Mughal Empire and #Aurangzeb was his third son, his elder brothers being Dara Shikoh and Shuja.
Aurangzeb was not his father’s favourite child. Yet he was the most capable. It was always Aurangzeb who was rushed to the most troubled theatres of war to command and confront.
His eldest brother Dara Shikoh - although militarily hopeless - was Shah Jehan’s declared favourite.
Throughout his youth Aurangzeb found himself despatched to the furthest, most tumultuous frontiers of the empire such as Qandahar and the Deccan.
While Dara plotted the succession at court, Aurangzeb endeared himself to his soldiers, through shared experiences in the battlefield.
Read 14 tweets
My review of @quizzicalguy’s timely work “Allahu Akbar”: Understanding the Great Mughal in Today’s India, published in the #SeminarMagazine.

To learn why this book is important, particularly at this time, read the review in the books section:

1. Emperor Akbar’s reign has long been held as an exemplar in modern political discourse around secularism, pluralism and social-harmony.
This has focused the ire of present day Right-wing paradigms against him, more than ever before. Such narratives ignore historical context.
2. Few other Indian rulers, (with the possible exception of #Aurangzeb), developed a centralisation of the state - thus given a geographical and political shape and form to India- to the degree that Akbar managed to do. Yet, even he was a 16th C absolutist monarch.
Read 6 tweets
History of #Hazratbal Shrine

The Hazratbal Shrine in #Srinagar #Kashmir is situated on the Northern bank of the #Dal Lake. The silvery-white Hazratbal Mosque is revered for housing a relic, the Prophet’s hair ImageImage

The relic was first brought to #Kashmir by #SyedAbdullah, a purported descendant of #ProphetMuhammad who left Medina and settled in Bijapur, near Hyderabad in 1635. ImageImage
When Syed Abdullah died, his son #SyedHamid inherited the relic. Following the #Mughal conquest of the region, Syed Hamid was stripped of his family estates. Finding himself unable to care for the relic, he sold it to a wealthy #Kashmiri businessman Khwaja Nur-ud-Din Esha..
Read 11 tweets
1. Today marks the 362nd anniversary of the #BattleofSamogarh; one of the most decisive (and defining), land-battles fought in the #history of Asia. A seminal conflict of arms that decided the future course of the #Mughal succession, and thus the history of #India.

A #Thread.
2. The Battle of #Samogarh was fought between the Mughal Crown Prince Dara Shikoh - commanding the Imperial Army - against his brothers, #Aurangzeb and Murad, Governors of the Deccan and Gujarat (respectively), on the 29th of May 1658, (7th Ramzān 1068), 17 kms S.E. of Agra.
3. The Battle of #Samogarh followed closely on the crushing defeat wrought upon the Mughal Imperial forces commanded by Maharaja Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur, by the rebel Princes Aurangzeb and Murad at #Dharmat in April 1658.

#History #Mughals
Read 17 tweets
Only an insecure citizen will vilify a period of history, as rich and complex as #Mughal rule.

This demonstrates a vacuum of confidence and an inherent inadequacy in their own ability, to accept or understand the dynamics that created modern #India.

A #thread on the #Mughals:
1. The #Mughals, as they are erroneously called, were descended from Temur (aka Tamberlane, Tamerlane), in a direct patrilineal line and from Chengiz Khan in a direct matrilineal line.

They identified themselves with their Timurid heritage.
2. Babur, like all Mughals felt a legitimate claim on Hindustan after its conquest in 1398-99, by Temür, which effectively ended the already tottering Tughlaq Sultanate, following the fall of Delhi.
Not until 1451 and the rise of the Lodis (under Bahlul Khan), did Delhi recover.
Read 30 tweets
Some notable films of #RishiKapoor on digital platforms..

Starting with the 2.0 phase..

A thread..
#HumTum (2004) - Prime

#PyaarMeinTwist (2005)

#Fanaa (2006) - Prime

#NamasteyLondon (2007)- Netflix, Prime

#LuckByChance (2009) - Netflix, Prime

#ChintuJi (2009) - Eros Now, Jio

#Delhi6 (2009) - Netflix

#LoveAajKal (2009) - Eros Now, Jio
#DoDooniChaar (2010) - Netflix
#PatialaHouse (2011) - Netflix
#Agneepath (2012) - Netflix, Prime
#SOTY (2012) - Netflix , Prime
#JabTakHaiJaan (2012) - Prime
#Housefull2 (2012) - Eros Now
#ChashmeBuddoor (2013) - Netflix
#Aurangzeb (2013) - Prime
#DDay (2013) - Prime
Read 10 tweets
Aurangzeb sent #GuruGobindSingh ji a Quran as a promise to allow him a safe passage from Anandpur. December 1704, Guru ji left Anandpur with family & 700 followes. While resting in Chamkaur Garhi, they were attacked by trecherous Mughals.
1/ n
Including #GuruGobindSingh ji’s 2 sons, his 40 men gave a tough fight & compelled Guruji to escape. After the Battle of Chamkaur, Guru Ji wrote a letter, #Zafarnama to #Aurangzeb expressing his own moral victory over the Mughal & his distrust in them 2/n
#Zafarnama was written in Persian & sent with Daya Singh Ji to #Aurangzeb
Mara aitbar bar een kasm-e-neest
Ke eizad gavah ast yazdan yakeest
Na katreh mara aitbar-e-bar-ost
Ki bakshi va deewan hameh kibzgost
Kase kaul-e kuran kund aitbar
Haman roz-e akhir shawad nard khawar.3/n
Read 6 tweets
Firman issued by #Aurangzeb to convert Hindus.
Rs 4 to a Hindu male Rs 2 to a female.
Dated: 7 Apr 1685
If Devi Chand, Zamindar of Manoharpur, who's in prison, becomes Muslim, better for him.
Else he be killed
Darbar Khan was ordered (by Aurangzeb) to send a parwanah to Ihatmam Khan, Kotwal of Garhvitli (at Ajmer) with above instructions
Read 16 tweets
Have you noticed something about the two mosques I talked about? The Charminar and the Mecca Masjid. They're very different from the common perception of what a mosque is supposed to look like, aren't they? Lofty bulbous domes, minarets, crescents, maybe painted green and white?
...Yet these two mosques have no domes or tall towering minarets that symbolize a mosque. Let's look at a few other heritage mosques around #Hyderabad. Here are a few images of Qutb Shahi mosques around the city...
Read 26 tweets
The plan to invade the Riyasat of #JammuAndKashmir wasn't born in #Lahore but in the residence of #Jinnah at #Aurangzeb road #NewDelhi . Here in the spring of 1947 Col. Akbar Khan & some #Muslim officers of the #British #Indian #Army hatched this plot .
It was only in October 1947 that Maj. Onkar Singh Kalkat of the Bannu Brigade #PakistanArmy who had not yet been repatriated to #India found files marked Operation Gulmarg Secret while looking for some other documents in the office of Brigadier Murray at NWFP.
Even though he was nearly arrested & sent to #Lahore , Maj.Onkar somehow made it out to #NewDelhi & told the #IndianArmy top brass about the file he had sern which detailed an invasion of #JammuKashmir by tribesmen. He wasn't taken seriously by the Brass .
Read 22 tweets
In the mid 1660s, a Rajput - acting on Mughal orders - besieged Shivaji at Purandar.

Marathas and different Rajput lineages often acted differently from one another, even fighting each other.

Ask yourself: Why can some people not accommodate this history in their worldview?
After Purandar, Shivaji allied with the Mughals. Then he reconsidered and escaped from Aurangzeb's court.

There were rumors that the same Rajput who had besieged Shivaji at Purandar, helped Shivaji escape. Many believed it.

It was a world of complicated, shifting alliances.
For anyone interested, I discuss and cite all of this in my #Aurangzeb book.

For a fuller story about Shivaji, however, you'll need to read either the North American or Pakistan edition since I cut some material from the Indian edition (on legal advice).…
Read 4 tweets
Akhbarat of Aurangzeb !
Even to look at a temple is Haraam for Musalman(Umurat I Huzur, Kishwar Kashai, Julus( R.Yr 9), Rabi II, 24, 13 Oct, 1666).
After Aurangzeb came to know that DaraSikoh gifted a railing to Keshav Rai temple, Mathura.
Just Two Years before his death, Aurangzeb 01 Jan 1705, he ordered destruction of Pandharpur, take Butchers to the temple & slaughter Cows.
Akhbarat says, it was DONE. (JN Sarkar).
Hindus to be replaced by Musalman.
Hindu Chowkinavis, Amin at Haft-Chowkis to be only Musalman (Siyaha Akhbarat Darbar Mu'alla, Julus, R.Yr 10, Zilhija, 16/30 May, 1667)
Read 7 tweets
This is a good example for talking about how people use and abuse sources and why it is valuable to demand academic standards. short #THREAD #Mughal #history #Aurangzeb
First red flag - No source is given for the picture with text. It is a slightly adapted version of what's on the Wikipedia page for Dara Shukoh. Wikipedia's pages are full of misinformation on Indian history. Case in point: Bicholim conflict.
Another problem. The source is Manucci. Honestly, for all The Hindu Right goes on against people like me because I'm of European descent, man, do they really rely on European sources too much for Indian history. Manucci especially...
Read 9 tweets
Firman issued by #Aurangzeb to convert Hindus.
Rs 4 to a Hindu male Rs 2 to a female.
Dated: 7 Apr 1685
If Devi Chand, Zamindar of Manoharpur, who's in prison, becomes Muslim, better for him.
Else he be killed
Darbar Khan was ordered (by Aurangzeb) to send a parwanah to Ihatmam Khan, Kotwal of Garhvitli (at Ajmer) with above instructions
Read 16 tweets
Know where #Gandhi ‘s love for Islam & preaching #Ahimsa to Hindus came from!
"My family was Pranami,though we are Hindu by birth, in our temple priest used to read from Quran & Geeta”. Gandhi
Prannath Thakur, desciple of Devchandra Maharaj established #Pranami tradition.
17th century, Maharaja Chhatrasal with Shivaji’s blessings fought the Mughals for freedom of Bundelkhand. Before the battle Prannath blessed him to be victorious & gave him his sword & angocha.
#Chhatrasal fought 80 battles with #Aurangzeb & won almost all!
Prannath would invite the converted Muslims & Hindus to dine together & cite Quran & Srimad Bhagwat in his teachings( maye be to connect with the new converts & bring them back)?
After Mahamati Prannath, #Chhatrasal promoted Krishna Pranami tradition of Mahamati Prannath.
Read 17 tweets
Firman issued by #Aurangzeb to convert Hindus.
Rs 4 to a Hindu male Rs 2 to a female.
Dated: 07 Apr 1685
If Devi Chand, Zamindar of Manoharpur, who's in prison, becomes Muslim, better for him.
Else he be killed
Darbar Khan was ordered (by Aurangzeb) to send a parwanah to Ihatmam Khan, Kotwal of Garhvitli (at Ajmer) with above instructions
Read 16 tweets
Why we should question scholar @AudreyTruschke’s dislike for @TulsiGabbard (and #NarendraModi)
What we've learned about Truschke, through her book on #Aurangzeb, and bias ulterior motives which include her family ties…👈
#AudreyTruschke is the daughter-in-law of Sr Evangelical Pastor Nathan Rehn, the founder of NGO Bless India Movt, it describes itself as“Mobilizing American Christians 2 win India 4 Christ”👇Listen 2 his lecture 2 find out what he thinks of other
Why we should question scholar #AudreyTruschke’s dislike for @TulsiGabbard (and #NarendraModi)
What we can learn about Truschke, through her book on #Aurangzeb, the bias and ulterior motives which include HER FAMILY TIES👇😡…
Read 4 tweets
Here's an interesting thread on
of the last Great #Mughal- Alamgir
Below will be the instructions
Alamgir left in his will.
Source: Ahkam-e-alamgiri(Anecdotes of Aurangzeb)
@ssharadmohhan @Biblioventurer @DalrympleWill
1."On behalf of this sinner sunk in iniquity, cover the tomb of Hasan, because those who are drowned in the ocean of sin have no other protection except seeking refugee..forgiveness. This great auspicious act is to be performed by my noble son Prince Alijah(Md. Azam)" @aary_aan
2."Rs 4 and 2 annas, out of the price of caps sewn by me are with Aia Beg, the Mahaldar. Spend this on the shroud of this helpless creature. 300& 5Rs, from the wages of copying Quran,are in my peruse of personal expense.Distribute them to the fakirs on my death, not on my shroud"
Read 14 tweets
I do not glorify the Mughals. I present an even-handed and, above all, a historical analysis of the Mughals. Accusations of 'glorifying' are bad faith misrepresentations of my work by some modern readers, or, more likely, trolls who have not actually read my work.
As always, yeah, I can back-up those words with hard evidence. Short THREAD.
In my 2017 biography of Aurangzeb Alamgir, I peg the king as a 'Destroyer of Temples' at times. Seriously, that's a title of a chapter in my book on the king. I describe in unvarnished language how he brought down certain temples.
Read 7 tweets

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