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"Uighurs make up close to 90 percent of the population in the south, compared to just under half in #Xinjiang over all, and Mr. Xi set a long-term goal of attracting more Han Chinese settlers."…
"[#Xi] & other party leaders ordered a quasi-#military organization, the #Xinjiang Production & Construction Corps [#XPCC], to accelerate efforts to settle the area with more #HanChinese, the docs show."…

Here's my history of XPCC:…
I offer a history of #Xinjiang Production & Construction Corps [#XPCC] in the #Encyclopedia of Modern #China:…

Here are the key excerpts from “People’s Liberation Army: #Military Enterprises & Industry Since 1949” (pp. 112-115):…
The #Xinjiang Production Construction Corps (#XPCC) was founded by former PLA corps commander, commissar, and first party secretary Wang Zhen under #Mao’s orders on October 9, 1954.…
Part of a larger process of emulating China’s Han-era “agricultural garrisons” & Qing-era “military colonies” in establishing “construction corps” to settle, render ag self-sufficient, & develop econ remote regions while defending borders & preparing to resist potential invaders.
XPCC’s initial force of 175,000 mil personnel, commanded by Tao Zhiyue, was drawn from 1st Field Army’s 2nd & 6th Corps, former Guomindang soldiers, & former mil forces of the interwar East Turkestan Republic (Ili National Army), & was subsequently augmented with young civilians.
By 1956, the #XPCC’s 300,000 troops were under the control of the new State Farms & Land Reclamation Ministry.

In the 1962 Sino-#Indian War, the XPCC supported frontline forces & furnished reserves.…
Following the 1962 Yining riots, in which thousands of Kazakhs and Uygurs fled to the Soviet Union, #XPCC’s force rose to 1.48 million.


Following #Xinjiang leader Wang Enmao’s dismissal in 1968 on charges for having used the #XPCC as his own regional army, the corps assumed a greater economic role & was stripped of its mil designation & absorbed by Xinjiang’s provincial government in 1975.…
#Deng Xiaoping restored the #XPCC’s #military role in 1981 amid fears of economic stagnation, Soviet aggression, Islamic fundamentalism, and ethnic separatism.…………
The XPCC was moved to the joint jurisdiction of PRC central govt & #Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region; the Ürümqi Military Region assumed the military aspects of its duties in 1982 (after 1985, this became the Xinjiang [provincial] Military District of the Lanzhou Military Region)
As a #paramilitary organization, #XPCC employs reservists & ~100,000 militia & cooperates closely with People’s Armed Police forces (e.g., in border defense) in addition to playing a #policing function & running #PRISONS & LABOR #CAMPS.…

To facilitate foreign #commercial relations, #XPCC units have been restructured along corporate lines, adopted a variety of civilian names (e.g., #Xinjiang State Farm Organization), & reduced the use of #military grades & terminology.…

@joshrogin Now tasked with both economic development & the prevention of separatism, the #XPCC remains #Xinjiang’s largest single employer & landowner, with 175 farms, 4,390 large & small enterprises, & 1/3 each of the province’s Han & arable land under its jurisdiction.

@joshrogin @BethanyAllenEbr In sum, the #Xinjiang Production Construction Corps (#XPCC) is #China’s last “#Maoist” organization, combining paramilitary & diverse civil economic roles.



@austinramzy @ChuBailiang @nytimes
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