Discover and read the best of Twitter Threads about #Immunology

Most recents (24)

An overactive inflammatory response could be at the root of many long #COVID cases, according to a new study from the Allen Institute for #Immunology and @fredhutch. 🧵…
Scientists have seen previous links between inflammation and long #COVID, but the new study – out today in @NatureComms – is the first to trace the persistence of these inflammatory markers over time in the same patients. (2/5)…
Out of 55 patients with long #COVID, ~2/3 had persistently high levels of certain signals of inflammation. The Allen Institute team was able to differentiate two kinds of #LongCOVID, inflammatory long COVID (in red) and non-inflammatory (in blue). (3/5) Graph with "Days post ...
Read 5 tweets
☘️Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA)☘️

Here's a 🧵 on another #rheumatology test which can confuse>help if ordered without a 💭 (part 1)

Let's peek into the #immunology lab to learn more about the lab aspect of ANA 🥼🧪👀


#MedTwitter #LupusAwarenessMonth #MedEd Image
🤔 What do we mean by ANA??

🔹As the name suggests, they are antibodies to various nuclear components

🔹These Antigens(Ag) can be related to

1. DNA🧬: DNA, histones, nucleosomes

2. RNA: Smith, RNP, Ro, La

3. Others: ribosomal P, Ku etc

Which one of the following is the oldest test to detect ANA? 📜

Read 12 tweets
(1) The plasma cell (PC) field has been booming and blooming in the past two years

Some dogmas and notions were quietly taken apart

An #immunology 🧵
(2) First, a pervasive dogma was that germinal centers are the sole origin of long-lived PCs

There is accumulating evidence that LLPCs can originate from T-cell-independent (extrafollicular) responses Figure 1 from PMID: 22529295
(3) Even within a GC-derived response, if you genetically label PCs prior to GC formation, you still get Long-lived plasma cells during this nascent extrafollicular response

Koike et al. here elegantly making use of two "timestamping" genetic tools Figure 4 of PMID: 36515679
Read 17 tweets
New @medrxivpreprint from work over 5 years with @tsanglab!
Our framework for integrating human population & single cell variations identified a "naturally adjuvanted" baseline immune system setpoint linked to more robust & immunogenic vaccine responses.…
We used mixed effects models to decompose variation in every gene attributable to cell type (defined by surface protein), individual, age, sex, and vaccination effects. Individual differences often explain substantial variation, highlighting the need for hierarchical models.
After accounting for human population variation, we defined vaccine-induced transcriptome perturbations in each cell type, then integrated these statistical model results with "bottom up" computational reconstructions of transcriptional dynamics.
Read 17 tweets
#IDtwitter #Immunology A Detailed Overview of #SARSCoV2 #Omicron: Its Sub-variants, Mutations and Pathophysiology, Clinical Characteristics, Immunological Landscape, Immune Escape, and Therapies 🧵
📌… @VirusesMDPI
Efficacy of Antiviral Agents against Omicron Subvariants BQ.1.1 and XBB… @NEJM
Characterization of #SARSCoV2 recombinants and emerging Omicron sublineages
Read 4 tweets
Sharing our latest paper in @Nature (…), in which we ask whether non-hospitalized #COVID19 could change the status of the #immune system in ways that then impact future responses to a distinct perturbation, the #influenza #vaccine, long after recovery👇
We employ systems #immunology and #SingleCell multiomic approaches. Check out the reusable multimodal single cell, transcriptomics, circulating proteins and other data at:… and…
This work, led by Rachel Sparks, William Lau, and Can Liu, took advantage of a unique opportunity and unprecedented epidemiological environment during the early fall of 2020, months after the first wave of COVID-19, when those with mild COVID-19 had recovered clinically, 👇
Read 13 tweets
Pediatric🧬Inborn Error of Immunity⚠️
*⃣ "mutations in RIPK1 are
a 🆕monogenic form of IBD"
Great work by Israeli 🇮🇱, Palestinian 🇵🇸 & US 🇺🇸 researchers… #bioinformatics #datascience #iot #snrtg #openscience #raredisease #gastro #genomics #immunology Image
Atypical, severe, immuno- phenotype in young patient(s)' ❓
➡️Think🤔 genetic
Sequence her/his🧬DNA.
Seek 🔎clues in the genome!
Sequence 🧬. Sequence 🧬. Sequence 🧬. Sequence 🧬. Sequence 🧬. Sequence 🧬. Sequence 🧬. Sequence 🧬. Sequence 🧬. Sequence 🧬. Sequence 🧬.
Read 5 tweets
A long battle for survival in a
(post- stem-cell transplant for leukemia)… #bioinformatics #itrtg #datascience #serverless #openscience #iot #raredisease #immunology #COVIDIsAirborne Image
These scenarios are unique to the
⚠️immunocompromised & immunodeficient⚠️.
If you are as such, please do EVERYTHING in your
power to avoid 🦠 Sars-Cov-2 infection:
💉vaxx ➕😷 mask ➕strategic social-📏-distancing.
Kudos to teams at:
Osaka Metropolitan University Graduate School of Medicine,
Osaka, 🇯🇵 Japan,
for saving the life of this critically-ill patient. #openscience
Read 7 tweets
🆕: COVID-19🦠vaxx-💉-response in a cohort of
#immunocompromised children
organ-transplant; stem-cell transplant; rheum, +
- 2 vs 3 dose study #serverless #openscience #scicomm #itrtg #iot #raredisease #datascience #immunology
A majority of the children mounted effective humoral repsonse following 2 doses; increase to near 100% following.
Caveat: these study authors recommend a 3-dose regimen in immunocompromised pediatric patients.
Kids do ⚠️NOT⚠️ have de-facto immunity to 🦠Sars-Cov-2
*⃣ especially immunocompromised kids *⃣
I have read recent case-reports of *fatal* COVID in kids with ▪️Primary Immunodeficiency, ▪️autoimmunity, ▪️rheumatic disease, ▪️cancers, ▪️sickle-cell, ▪️transplants, and more...
Read 6 tweets
Valuable #immunology cell atlas: #scRNAseq + paired B & T cell receptor seq for 330,000 tissue-resident immune cells across 16 human tissues.

CellTypist: new & robust immune cells annotation algorithm, finding 101 immune cell types in 1,000,000 cells‼️

Why this is important👇🧵
Assessing cell types in healthy human tissues is hard. That's why most human immune studies so far profiled immune cells circulating in the blood.

But we know that the multitude of immune cells residing in tissues play distinct roles in development & disease than blood cells 2/7
This study is the first to characterize in depth the single cell expression landscape of the immune system as an integrated cross-tissue machinery.

The resulting cell-level complexity is disentangled with CellTypist, a newly-introduced logistic regression-based framework. 3/7
Read 9 tweets
⛄️Winter is coming, time for a 2nd 🧵 on cryoglobulins!

❄️What's a cryoglobulin?

❄️What causes cryos to form?

❄️When to suspect cryos are the culprit?

#medtwitter #meded @HRheuminations #immunology #vasculitis
Cryoglobulins are antibodies that:

❄️precipitate at temps less than 37 degrees C
🌟dissolve after rewarming

(the last 🧵 demonstrates, it's not just temps that cause precipitation, but also changes in concentration, salinity and ph)

Why do they do this? We're not sure!
3 types!

but to make life easier:

❄️Type 1 driven by underling malignancy
❄️Type 2 and 3 (mixed): infection or rheumatologic condition
Read 15 tweets
🆕: Severe, atypical, post-🦠- #COVID19
neurological🧠 sequelae
💉responsive to IVIg
…… #serverless #womeninstem #openscience #scicomm #snrtg #LongCovid #neurology #immunology
🙏KUDOS and respect to this brave gentleman for consenting to the publication of this video and giving a glimpse into one of the many ways in which 🦠Sars-Cov-2 is affecting the🧠brains of those it infects.
#openscience #scicomm
Protect yourself from 🦠Sars-Cov-2,
It's messing up 🧠 brains.
Read 4 tweets
🆕: ⚠️Not so mild 🦠#COVID19
in this immunosuppressed patient
- development of atypical, severe, acute 🧠 meningitis… #bioinformatics #womeninstem #openscience #scicomm #snrtg #genomics #immunology Image
This patient could not have wound up in better hands:
National Institute of Infectious Diseases
“Lazzaro Spallanzani” IRCCS- Rome, 🇮🇹 Italy
👍 great job treating this patient,
sequencing and monitoring🧬the 🦠strain,
...and saving her life
#openscience #scicomm
I have found only a handful of reports in literature of
🦠Sars-Cov-2 induced🧠 meningitis. I thought there would be more. Caveat: it's exceedingly rare, but it does happen.
Read 4 tweets
🦠Sars-Cov-2 escaped detection in these
2⚠️immunocompromised patients
...good thing these inquistive teams dug "deeper."… #bioinformatics #openscience #itrtg #COVID19 #iot #scicomm #immunology #virology
"2 cases occult SarsCov2 in immunocompromised hosts: Dx originally not suspected due to repeat negative SARS-CoV-2 from NP specimens
isolation of viable SARS-CoV-2 virus + nucleocapsid + spike-protein antigen in lung tissue on immunohistochemistry 3-months from primary infection"
"suggests ongoing 🦠viral persistence and replication as a driver of the lung parenchymal changes,
which resolved after antiviral treatment."
Both patients survived:
discharged on days 80 and 100 respectively.
Read 4 tweets
7⃣+ months of Norovirus🦠positivity➕
in this ⚠️Primary Immunodeficiency patient
▪️ Rx-resistant
🧬-> intra-host evolution led to a unique norovirus strain #bioinformatics #openscience #scicomm #itrtg #raredisease #genomics #immunology Image
Very much in line with what has been seen
in some persistent🦠Sars-Cov-2 infections in immunocompromised hosts.
▪️ viral-clearance failure
▪️ within-host viral evolution/mutations
*the report gives no indication on the fate of the patient.
⚠️Immunocompromised patients ⚠️as atypical
"outliers" with almost every🦠infectious pathogen (circa 2017).
❗️ PLEASE doctors - keep a good 👁️eye on those
with compromised immune-systems… #openscience #scicomm #meded Image
Read 4 tweets
Thread 🧵👇:
After so many years of work and as a post Epstein-Barr virus infection #MECFS sufferer it makes me really happy that they have put our article on the cover of the August issue of Pathogens journal 👉
Until recently nobody talked about post-viral syndromes (actually they should be called chronic infectious syndromes) and they left all of us patients isolated both at a health and social level. Unfortunately it took another virus like #SARSCoV2 to show us how viruses are ...(2/)
...capable of developing chronic diseases like #LongCovid . It is curious that for bacterial infections we use antibiotics but for viral infections we leave it to our immune system to manage to control it. This must change. (3/)
Read 15 tweets
Welcome everyone to our 2nd Pediatric on Squares Board Review Course
We are starting today until the coming 8 days
Hope it’ll be helpful and enjoyable course
✏️ Note that you still can join and register on the course with accessibility to all recorded session until 27th of August ImageImage
Day 1
1st session: Pulmonology Review
By Dr. Bassem Kurdi @Bassemkurdi

#Pediatric #Pulmonology #MCQ ImageImage
Day 1
2nd session: Keys to Answer MCQs
3rd session: Neonatology review
By: Prof. Abdulrahman Alnemari @aalnemri
#Pediatric #Neonatology #NICU #MCQ ImageImage
Read 23 tweets
🆕Newly-described in an infant:
Recurrent respiratory🦠infections requiring
mechanical ventilation;
interstitial-🫁-lung disease; pancytopenia;
hepatic failure, brain atrophy, +… #bioinformatics #snrtg #openscience #immunology #raredisease Image
Exome seq revealed novel compound heterozygous variants in FARSA: P347L & R475Q - in a patient who initially presented neonatal-onset failure to thrive, liver dysfunction, and frequent respiratory infections.
Died at age 28-months of progressive hepatic and respiratory failure.
Great job in Dx and treating this infant by this team of 🧬disease-detectives from the
🇰🇷 'Korean Undiagnosed Disease Program,'
and Seoul National University,
though, sadly, the outcome was fatal.
Read 3 tweets
It doesn't give *⃣ 2 shits *⃣ if you've been infected
with prior variants
...and get💉vaxxed!… #bioinformatics #serverless #openscience #snrtg #scicomm #immunology
*⃣ Sorry - I posted the link to the graph
This is the link to the article itself:…
The best protection against infection
and/or reinfection with Omicron🦠:
Vaxx/boost💉➕ masking 😷
Read 6 tweets
Prof. Akiko Iwasaki @VirusesImmunity of @Yale @YaleMed is the keynote speaker of #IACFSME conference, presenting today on the immunology of Long COVID. #viruses #immunology #CovidIsNotOver #mecfs #LongCovid #COVID19 @itsbodypolitic
Dr. Iwasaki explains that SARS-Cov2 is “one of many unexplained post-acute infection syndromes [that]
occur after encounter with many distinct pathogens” (such as EBV, polio, & dengue). @NIH #LongCovid #LongCovidKids
Dr. Iwasaki says that COVID-19 can cause long-lasting symptoms involving almost all organs and cites @patientled research on symptomology of #LongCovid. @NIH #CovidIsNotOver
Read 17 tweets
Brand 🆕 insight into the mechanism of
anti-interferon (IFN)–γ autoantibodies
- implications for 🧬Inborn Errors of Immunity⚠️
and 🦠SarsCov2
#bioinformatics #openscience #scicomm #immunology #genomics #raredisease
These auto-ABs are linked 🦠to:
1⃣ Primary Immunodeficiencies / "IEIs": susceptibility to certain infections
2⃣ Susceptibility to severe and fatal COVID-19
The anti-interferon (IFN)–γ autoantibody
➡️🦠#COVID19 connection #bioinformatics #openscience #scicomm
Read 4 tweets
A large🆕study confirms
the⚠️danger of 🦠SarsCov2
to the #immunocompromised
Take precautions to protect yourself… #WomenInSTEM #openscience #itrtg #scicomm #medtwitter #immunology #raredisease
▪️ 💉vaxx ➕boost💉
▪️😷 mask on and up
▪️📏 practice strategic social-distancing
If you are immunodeficient or immunocompromised,
(👤LIKE ME) ... these 3⃣ things could well save your life.
A news article which accompanies the above research:
"Study highlights need to prioritize
immunocompromised COVID patients"… #WomenInSTEM #openscience #scicomm
Read 4 tweets
Quite remarkable results in this
5 year-old suffering severe post-effects of
a rare form of autoimmune 🧠encephalitis… #snrtg #medtwitter #openscience #scicomm #neurology #immunology #stemcell
"The patient was in a vegetative state when she was first admitted to hospital and received cell therapy as a last resort."
...she is now ready to attend school.
These results need to be replicated in additional patients, however initial results look extremely compelling.
Read 4 tweets
🦠9⃣-MONTH Sars-Cov-2 infection in an
immunocompromised patient
⚠️ with more than 20 🧬viral mutations… #bioinformatics #openscience #scicomm #snrtg #immunology #genomics Image
Getting 💉vaccinated💉: 1⃣ protects the immunocompromised from SarsCov2, and 2⃣: protects ALL OF US from the emergence of new🦠variants🧬
Our lives our interconnected. Shielding the most vulnerable is in our collective best-interest.
Read 6 tweets

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