Discover and read the best of Twitter Threads about #mughal

Most recents (24)

#Mughal emperor #Aurangzeb is being dissected today by right wingers.

Here I detail some of the best books written on Aurangzeb, the emperor who ruled India for 50 long years and brought the entire Indian subcontinent under central rule.

#Thread Image
In this bold and captivating biography, Audrey Truschke enters the public debate with a fresh look at the controversial Mughal emperor. Image
Jadunath Sarkar has written a five volume book on Aurangzeb. He is among his greatest critics, but also praises his persona, his leadership qualities and also his clean image. Image
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Aich Surname Wikipedia

#Aich #Aitch #Aech #Surname #Kayastha #Kshatriya #Brahmin #Muslim #Hindu #Islam #Wiki #Austria #BadenWürttemberg #Germany #Bangladesh #Bikrampur #Dhaka

The following article requires a number of citations. The content has been collected & collaged from
the history of edits contributed by different people on the ‘Aich Surname’ page in Wikipedia. The link to the Aich Surname Wikipedia page is as follows.….

Aich (also spelled as Aitch) is a Hindu #Bengali surname belonging to the Maulika Kayastha
Aguri (agro) caste mainly found in Burdwan or Birbhuma and Hoogly.

Kayasthas are a sub-caste of Hindus, found across both historical and modern India. The #Kayasthas emerged as a sub-caste or Caste of the #Kshatriyas in Bengal during
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#Thread on

#SarbatKhalsa #ਸਰਬੱਤ_ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ

meaning of 👏🏻“Sarbat Khalsa👏🏻
“is (All The Khalsa)
it literally Translates to The entire Sikh Population

The first Sarbat Khalsa was called by the 10th Sikh guru,#GuruGobindSingh before his death in 1708
#Vaisakhi #Punjab
The first Sarbat Khalsa was called by the tenth guru, #GuruGobindSingh before his death in 1708 and the tradition of calling #SarbatKhalsa has continued ever since at times of hardship or conflict.👇
After the demolition of the #MahantSystem by the #Khalsa Panth, S.#KartarSinghJhabbar called the Sarbat Khalsa in 1920.He was not the Jathedar of the #AkalTakht but a #Sikh leader. In the resolution of that Sarbat Khalsa,#TejaSinghBhuchhar was announced as Jathedar of AkalTakht👇
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@queenpatriot_45 Watch Ranveer Singh perfectly capture the victorious spirit of Peshwa #warrior Bajirao in this high-octane traditional song 'Malhari' from the #Film 'Bajirao Mastani'.

Peshwa means #PrimeMinister. This is the origin of the #Trump meme.

@queenpatriot_45 The #Trump guy is Bajirao I, #PrimeMinister of the #Maratha Confederacy in #India.
He compared #Mughal's to a tree:

Let us strike the trunk of the withering tree & the branches will fall off themselves. Listen to my counsel & I shall plant Maratha's flag on the walls of Attock
@queenpatriot_45 Those of you familiar with how #Trump helped Rudy Giuliani as an #Undercover agent to take down the #NewYork #Mafia Families, from the bottom up, will recognize the significance of this quote.
This is why the #Cabal leaders are in such a #Panic right now.
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Folks -- I'm happy to answer historical questions on Twitter re the Mughals.

But general tip -- If what you're citing as "evidence" is a cartoon drawing you saw on WhatsApp... you shouldn't need a historian's professional opinion to tell you it is bullshit.

#Mughal #history
Updating with some questions that have come in with brief answers.
The jizya wasn't in effect for much of Mughal rule. When it was, Brahmin religious leaders (not all Brahmins) were exempt.

Typically, the jizya was collected by a special class of tax collectors drawn from the ulama.
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भारत में इस्लामिक विजयों के कारण #गुलामी
1. इस्लामिक विजयों के कारण भारत में मंदिरों का विनाश सर्वविदित है लेकिन भारतीय गुलामी के बारे में बहुत कम जानकारी है। भारतीय भूमि पर इस्लामी विजय के परिणामस्वरूप अक्सर बड़ी संख्या में लोगों को पकड़ लिया जाता था
और उन्हें गुलाम ..cont 2
2.बना लिया जाता था। इस तरह पकड़े गए पुरुषों और महिलाओं को अपने आकाओं के लिए #गुलामों के रूप में काम करना पड़ता था जो हमलावर सेना या शासक वर्ग के उच्च अधिकारी थे। गुलाम लड़कियों को सेक्स या वेश्यावृत्ति के लिए मजबूर किया जाता था। जब मुस्लिम सैनिक लड़कियों के साथ जबरदस्ती cont..3..
3. सोते थे, तो लड़की के समुदाय ने उसे स्वीकार करने से इनकार करते थे और उसके पास इस्लाम कबूल करने के अलावा कोई विकल्प नहीं बचाता था। इसके अलावा गुलामों का जबरन धर्म परिवर्तन दिल्ली सल्तनत (1206-1555) और मुगल साम्राज्य (1526 से) में एक नियमित विशेषता थी। इस्लामी शासन के दौरान, ..4
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Today marks the 316th death-anniversary of Badshāh Muhi-ud Dīn Muhammad #Aurangzeb Alamgīr (R.A.).
His long reign (1658-1707) consolidated the largest and wealthiest land-empire in Indian #history and was arguably the most socially-diverse dispensation to ever rule #India.
Even critics of Aurangzeb (R.A.), such as the historian Sir Jadunath Sarkar concede, "Aurangzeb’s Indian empire was vaster than that of Ashoka, Samudragupta, & Harshavardhan”.

It was in his reign too that #Ladakh was amalgamated into the #Mughal empire.f
The reign of Aurangzeb (R.A.) was based on 3 pillars:

1. Military expansion.
2. Islamic jurisprudence and a centralised justice system.
3. Adherence to his Indo-Timurid heritage.

This helped consolidate his empire, but it also depended on his persona for sustained success.
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Historic city #Aurangabad has been renamed as #Sambhajinagar by the govt. This is an outrageous step that has been done without checking the history of the region. #Aurangabad was founded by Malik Ambar, one of the greatest Adil Shahi general of Ahmadnagar Sultanate.
He founded the city when the capital of the dynasty was threatened and taken over by the #Mughal forces after years and years of military assault by the Delhi Emperors on a regional power, finally almost destroying it. But Malik Ambar resurrected an almost dying sultanate.
In 1610, a new city named Khaḍkī was established at the location of modern Aurangabad to serve as the capital of the Ahmadnagar Sultanate by the Ethiopian military leader Malik Ambar, who was brought to India as a slave but rose to become a popular Prime Minister of Sultanate.
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The legend of Dulla Bhatti who led a rebellion against #mughal emperor #Akbar The memory of Bhatti specially as a saviour of Punjabi girls is recalled every #lohri #lohricelebration #Lohri2023 Here’s his story. A thread 🧵 👇
Sulla Bhatti was a Punjabi Muslim Rajput born on 23 July 1547. His father and grandfather were executed by Akbar for opposing a new land revenue scheme.
He was born 4 days after his father was executed by Mughal Emperor Akbar. When his mother Ladhi explained to him about the fate of his father and grandfather he turned a rebel against the emperor.
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Do You Know ?

The #Sikhs raided #Delhi 14 times

between 1766 and 1788.

#SikhHistory #History #khalsa Image
After defeating Mughals in the Battle of #Sirhind (1764) Sikhs plundered Jagir of Najib-ud-daula. Najib appointed Afzal Khan to take care of Delhi. Sikhs raided the #Paharganj region of the city. Image
Sikhs raided Delhi in 1770. They sacked Panipat and entered the territories of #NajibUdDaula and attacked Delhi. #ZabitaKhan was sent to stop Sikhs.The Sikhs demanded a large amount of money for friendship but declined by Zabita. ImageImage
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شاہجہان آباد اور اس کے دروازے (Shahjahanabad/Dilli Gates)
بھارت کے شہر دہلی اور اسکے گردونواح (Outskirts) علاقوں کاذکر ھندوؤں کی مقدس کتاب "مہابھارت" میں مختلف ناموں سے ملتا ھے۔
یہ شہر 1400سال قبل مسیح میں پانڈوؤں اور کوروں نےآباد کیاتھا۔ ImageImage
کم لوگوں کے علم میں ھو گاکہ شاہجہان آباد پرانی دلی (بھارت) کا پرانا نام ھے جسے مغل بادشاہ شاہجہان نے 1639 تا 48 کے درمیان دریائے جمنا کے جنوب مشرقی کنارے دریافت کیا تھا۔
1648 میں جب بادشاہ شاہجہان نے اپنا دارالحکومت آگرہ سے دہلی کو بنایا تو اس کا نام "دلی" سے تبدیل کر دیا گیا۔ Image
گویا ایک وقت میں دہلی کو شاہجہان آباد بھی کہا جاتا تھا۔
شاہی عدالتوں، پرکشش مساجد، امراء کے محلات، یادگاریں، مینشنز سے بھرے دہلی کو اردگرد سے 12فٹ چوڑی، 26 فٹ اونچی اور 6.1 مربع کلومیٹر لمبی دیوار گھیرے ھوئے ھے۔
اسکےعلاؤہ دہلی کی وجہ شہرت اسکے14 دروازےہیں جنہیں 7ویں صدی میں تعمیر ImageImage
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Kanch Mahal (Agra, Uttar Pradesh)
کانچ محل (آگرہ، اتر پردیش)__1619ء
 اس محل کی تعمیر کےپیچھے جوکہانی ھے وہ کم لوگوں کے علم میں آتی ھے کیونکہ پہلی نظر میں کانچ محل کی مربع شکل اس کاگرویدہ کرتی ھے۔ یہ دومنزلہ مغل طرزِتعمیرجسے 1605 سے1619 ImageImageImageImage
کے درمیان 14 سال میں تعمیر کیا گیا، آگرہ کے اسکندرا قلعہ میں اکبر کے مقبرے کے قریب باغات کےبیچ کھڑاھے۔
کانچ محل شاہی خواتین کے لیے ایک تفریحی مقام (Ladies Resort) تھا۔ پھراسے مغل شہنشاہ جہانگیر نے شکار (Hunting Lodge) کیلیےاستعمال کیا۔ پھر یہ ڈھانچہ چرچ مشنری سوسائٹی کی دیکھ بھال ImageImageImage
میں آ گیا اور بعد میں اسے محکمہ آثار قدیمہ نے سنبھال لیا۔
حویلی کی دیواریں پیچیدہ طور پر تراشے گئے سرخ پتھر سے بنی ہیں جن میں شراب کے گلدان، عربی، پھولوں کی کریپر اور ہندسی شکلوں کے ڈیزائن ہیں۔
کانچ محل میں داخل ھونے پر، آپ کی آنکھ نیلی، سبز اور نارنجی چمکدارٹائلوں کے موزیک سےجڑی ImageImageImageImage
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Kangra fort Is the oldest surviving fort of India. It has unsunug stories from Mahabharata to Alexander to British Raj to tell.

#Thread Image
As per legends, Maharaja named Susharma Chandra, fighting for the Kauravas, was engaged to distract Krishna and Arjun by luring them away, to the other side of the chakravyuh. This maharaja belonged to Katoch Dynasty Image
As per another legend, Katoch was born out of the first Sweat Drop fallen from Devi Ambika's brow which helped Devi fighting 'Raktbeej'
In return, the Goddess gifted him the kingdom of Trigarta, of which Kangra was a part. Image
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1. My #SamarkandSummit orientalist🧵on its toponym and etymology. Incorrect is #Wikipedia's #Samarkand etymon entry and false analogy to #Tashkent. Both #Samarkand, like neighbouring #Bukhara, remain extensively debated in eastern #MiddleIranian #philology.
2. #Samarkand, contra #Wikipedia, is not 'stone city'. The first element /sm’r/ remains unexplained. On #Sogdian sm’rknδh [Ancient Letters], cf. Chin. Samojian 颯秣建 Gr. Μαρακάνδοι, scholarly consensus exists only on second compound, #Sogdian 'town, city'.
3. #Sogdian knδh 'town, city' > #Christian #Sogdian qθ; /sm’r/ element unmentioned in Gharib 1995 [Sogdian #Dictionary], @iranicaonline, or EI2 [Enc. of #Islam) entries. See @Brill_ME_Africa EI2, VIII/1995: 1031-032, s.v. #Samarkand Schaeder (rev. Bosworth).
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زیر آب مسجد کی دریافت____ریاست بہار (بھارت)
Mosque Re-emerges from Underwater (#Bihar)
تقریباً120 سالہ قدیم
جیسے مصر کی بندرگاہ ہراکلین سے زیر آب شہر اور چین میں زیر آب مجسمہ بدھااور شہر دریافت ھوا ھے بالکل اسی طرح چند دن قبل ریاست بہار
کے ضلع نوادہ کے چرائیلا (Chiraila) گاؤں میں زیر آب مسجد پھولواریہ ڈیم کے جنوبی سرے میں پانی کے خشک ھونےکے بعد ابھری ھے۔
اس زیر آب مسجد کاپس منظریہ ھے کہ یہ 1979 میں پھلواریہ ڈیم کی تعمیرپر کام شروع ھونے سے پہلے موجود تھی جہاں بڑی آبادی تھی جنہیں ڈیم کی تعمیرکیلیے بےدخل کیاگیاتھا۔
پہلے جب پانی کی سطح کم ھوتی تو مسجد کے گنبد کا صرف ایک حصہ نظر آتا تھا جسے لوگ نہیں سمجھ پاتے تھے کہ یہ کیا ھے؟
پرانے زمانے کے لوگ اس مسجد کا نام"نوری مسجد" سے یاد کرتے ہیں جو کہ 1985 میں پھلواریہ ڈیم کی تعمیر کےبعد زیر آب آگئی تھی۔
مسجدکی زمین سے بالائی گنبدتک اونچائی تقریباً 30
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Mahadaji Shinde (1730 – 1794) was a Maratha general and Raja of Ujjain (later Gwalior). He was also the architect of Maratha revival in northern India after Panipat.
He was the youngest of five sons of Ranoji Shinde, founder of the Scindia dynasty. Mahadji came into prominence following the deaths of his older brothers in Maratha campaigns in northern India 1750-61.
Mahadji provided the muscle (and troops) for Peshwa Madhavrao I and his adviser Nana Fadnavis political ambitions.
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Who is the Jagat Seth of our times?

In 1707, Manikchand helped Prince Farrukhsiyar financially to become the #Mughal Emperor. As reward, Farrukhsiyar conferred the title of Jagat Seth on Manik Chand, the head of the family, meaning "banker or merchant of the world.
Murshid Quli Khan Subedar of Bihar, Bengal and Orissa and Seth Manik Chand were close friends of each other. Manik Chand was not only the cashier of Nawab Murshid Quli Khan but the revenue of the province was also deposited with him.
After the Battle of Plassey, Mir Jafar became the new Nawab. He organised the killing of several members of the family including Jagat Seth, Mehtab Chand and his cousin Swarup Chand, in 1763, and threw their bodies off the ramparts off Munger Fort.
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#OnThisDay, in 1951, the famous Somnath Temple in #Gujarat was restored to its former glory. In the words of the then President of India, Dr Rajendra Prasad, it proved that “the power of reconstruction is always greater than the power of destruction". 1/9
#Indianhistory Image
The Somnath #Temple, dedicated to Lord Shiva as ‘Lord of the Moon’, has been one of the most sacred shrines in #India for over 1,500 years. Due to its fame as a centre of wealth, it was attacked and plundered by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in 1026 CE. 2/9
#Hindu #religion Image
A few years after this infamous sack, the temple was restored and continued to serve as an important pilgrimage centre. But over the centuries, the temple was attacked and plundered repeatedly. 3/9
Read 9 tweets
What' the link between Lahore’s oldest red-light district and two of the subcontinent’s greatest Emperors? It’s hard to imagine today but till 250 years ago, Heera Mandi was a royal neighbourhood and a hub of culture & the performing arts. Come, follow its twists and turns. 1/8 Image
#Lahore was the capital of #Mughal Emperor Akbar in the 16th century, and what later became a bazaar was set up to house the attendants and servants of the royal court. It was called Shahi Mohalla or Royal Neighbourhood. 2/8 Image
Soon, it began to throb to the rhythm, music & dance performances of tawaifs, or professional entertainers of the royal court, and mujra performances. This culture flourished and Shahi Mohalla produced names such as Noor Jahan, Khurshid Begum & Mumtaz Shanti, among others. 3/8
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ہرن مینار (فتح پور سکری اترپردیش، بھارت)
ہرن مینارسےہمارے ذہن میں فورا شیخوپورہ آتا ھے۔
ہرن مینار (پاکستان) جو بادشاہ جہانگیر نے اپنے پسندیدہ ہرن کی موت کے غم میں تعمیر کروایا تھا، مغلوں کی حماقت یاد دلانے کیلئےناکافی تھا۔ اسی طرح کی ایک اور حماقت فتح پور سکری میں
بائیس میٹر اونچا ایک اور ہرن مینار تعمیر کر کے کی گئی۔
بادشاہ اکبر نے مینار کے آس پاس کے علاقے کو ہرن کی پناہ گاہ میں تبدیل کرنے کے لیے تعمیر کروایا۔
اس ٹاور کی ایک دلچسپ بات یہ ھے کہ 3.91 میٹر کی اونچائی تک یہ آکٹونل ھے اور اس کا باقی حصہ گول ھے۔ آپ ایک چپٹے دروازے سے ٹاور میں
داخل ھوتے ہیں۔ اندرونی حصہ نقش کاری اور دلکش ڈیزائن سے مزین ھے۔
53 سیڑھیاں چڑھنے کے بعد آپ چوٹی پر پہنچ سکتے ہیں اور شاہی شہر فتح پور سیکری کےپرندوں کےنظارے سے لطف اندوز ہو سکتے ہیں۔
مینار پر آپ متبادل قطاروں میں چھ ستاروں اور مسدس کی سجاوٹ دیکھ سکتےہیں۔ ہرستارےاور مسدس کے درمیان
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Today, March 3, is the death anniversary of #Aurangzeb Alamgir, one of the greatest #Mughal emperors. Aurangzeb, the last powerful Mughal ruler is among the most misunderstood king in Indian history. He ruled for nearly 50 years, from 1658 until 1707
#Thread Image
...the last great imperial power in India before British colonialism. The Mughal empire survived another 150 years after his death, however, it saw slow and steady disintegration and after 1804 they were actually emperors in name, as British and their proxies ruled much of India.
He is loved and loathed with equal intensity by different groups of people. While many Muslims believe him to be the most pious king in the history of the Muslim India, many historians have presented his as a savage who was intent upon killing and destroying Hindus.
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Yesterday, February 14th was the birth anniversary of #Mughal emperor Zahiruddin Babur. Founder of Mughal dynasty, Bābur, a descendant of Genghis Khan and also of the Turkic conqueror Timur was a military adventurer, great soldier, poet, scholar as well as a statesman.
Bābur came from Barlas tribe of Mongol origin, but some considered them Turks in language and customs through long residence in Turkish regions. Hence, Bābur, though called a Mughal, drew most of his support from Turks, and the empire he founded was Turkish in character.
As there was no fixed law of succession among Turks, every prince of the Timurids—the dynasty founded by Timur—considered it his right to rule the whole of Timur’s dominions. Those territories were vast, and, hence, the princes’ claims led to unending wars.
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On this day (14th February) in 1483, the first Mughal emperor Babur was born. 14th February is also marked as an official cultural day in Uzbekistan celebrating the birth anniversary of Babur. This day is known as Babur Day.
During Babur Day, multiple events are conducted that are attended by celebrities, high ranking officials and students.
Musicians sing songs inspired by music pieces commissioned by Babur, poetry written by Babur is recited, painting competitions are held and theatre performances on Babur's life is acted.
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Why did the #Mughal Emperors not perform the #Hajj? The simple answer is that the duty of protecting the boundaries of the state, preserving law, order, public safety & rights (Hukukullah) was an absolute obligation (fardh al-ain), hence the Emperors were excused from the Hajj.
“Hajj is not incumbent upon the Sultans; they would rather sit on the throne & perform justice, lest an instigation should arise”.

17th century Fatwa by Ottoman Shaikh ul islam, Es’ad Effendi.
To make up, the Emperors would annually sponsor Hajj voyages & appoint a representative (Amir ul Hajj) to lead the pilgrims, ensure their safety, distribute gifts & charity across the holy cities, & to perform the Hajj on the emperors behalf.
Read 5 tweets

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