Also note other non-international armed conflicts, incl between AQAP and GoY, with IHL applying to US actions against AQAP.
GEE highlight GoY in this regard, but Houthis "also bound by international human rights obligations."
And coalition states and non-state armed groups may have IHRL obligations where exercising control.
Also ICL -- but notes most state parties aren't ICC members (except Jordan and Senegal).
Now for findings.
-7,292 civilians killed (incl. 1,959 children + 880 women)
-11,630 civilians injured (incl. 2,575 children + 1,256 women)
... "the actual figures are probably much higher."
GEE notes one such attack near a displaced persons camp. Another on civilians fleeing.
In June 2019, in #Taiz, a sniper killed a 13-year-old boy near a water collection point.
(indiscriminate attacks resulting in the death or injury of civilians + directing attacks against civilians).
"These acts may lead to criminal responsibility for war crimes."
GEE says Houthis used anti-personnel + anti-vehicle mines, with huge civilian impact; did so in violation of IHL.
"mines were emplaced in unmarked locations frequented by civilians, w/ little or no warning given, which rendered their use indiscriminate."
"Parties regularly used civilian objects for military activities, incl. those w/ special protection, such as hospitals and religious and cultural sites ..
further restrict[ing] extremely limited safe spaces for civilians + exacerbat[ing] dire humanitarian situation."
a. Attacks against objects indispensable:
Coalition airstrikes destroy/damage farmland, water facilities, infrastructure, medical facilities.
Houthi landmines on farmland, use hospitals.
Both GoY + Houthis "imposed bureaucratic constraints that caused significant additional delays in relief operations."
Aid diversion by Houthis has impeded delivery of humanitarian supplies.
Violence against humanitarian workers.
Other measures taken by both GoY and Houthis "exacerbated disastrous economic situation, further infringing on the human rights of the population."
Cite non-payment of salaries, Houthi tax practices. etc.
On IHRL: Both GoY and Houthis "have failed to meet their human rights obligations, particularly regarding the right to work, the right to an adequate standard of living, including the right to food and water, and the rights to health and education."
On IHL and ICL (and starvation):
"The fact that the acts described above all played a role in depriving the population of objects indispensable to its survival, + have been continued, justifies deep concerns that starvation may have been used as a method of warfare."
(again, ty 🙏-- Hate when ignored; grateful when not):
Houthis: Arbitrary killings, arbitrary detention, enforced disappearance, torture and ill-treatment... men, women and boys.
"including support to a rival political party but also posting critical statements on social media, engaging on human rights-related issues or questioning a local education policy."
"Relatives reported they had been required to pay money for information on the whereabouts of detainees, for promises of their release, or to see or retrieve the body of a detainee who had died in custody."
Documented torture, incommunicado detention, frequent transfers between facilities, use of secret facilities keeping detainees out of reach of families, or any legal protection.
"Law enforcement actors generally posed a direct threat to women’s security, and the parties actively obstructed protection networks, factors that all risk entrenching inequality and gender-based violence even further."
In one case, Houthis kidnapped and detained a woman to force a Houthi defector to surrender.
In others, they detained women and girls on the accusation of traveling without a male guardian.
"Almost all cases of attacks involving civilians and indiscriminate attacks documented by the Group of Experts resulted in child casualties."
GEE: "pervasive lack of accountability"
#Yemen: National commission has important role to play, but "must be structurally and functionally independent."
#Houthis: GEE "questions whether the de facto authorities have examined and investigated alleged violations of international law, in accordance with international standards, at all.
- "genuine + comprehensive accountability" crucial to achieving peace + stability.
- Steps to collect + preserve evidence essential for this.
- Call on HRC to add evidence function to GEE mandate.
Here's hoping one day justice seen, and redress given.
Documentation not just to record, but to push for horrific practices to change, and remedies to be found.
They themselves say it doesn't account for every violation, every abuse, every tragedy in #Yemen.
It's an attempt to show a snapshot of what this war has meant for civilians.
And it is awful.
No message is clearer than that those with power have failed to arrest a slide into the worst when it comes to the war in #Yemen.