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Day 2 #Gambia v #Myanmar #ICJ begins, w/#ASSK up first. She declares #genocide is a crime, applied by #ICTR to #Rwanda but not to #Kosovo or #Croatia by #ICTY or #ICJ, because of a lack of dolus specialis.
Gambia has put fwd 'Incomplete & misleading factual picture'. Situation in #Rahkine is 'complex & not easy to fathom'. (same rhetoric as we have heard for years)
Complexities go back for yrs. Claims conflict btwn Arakan Army w/5000 fighters & the #Myanmar Army, w/Arakan Army seeking independence. The conflict has led to displacement & security measures such as curfew & checkpoints, applied to all regardless of background.
Mentions again the Arakan Army 2016 attacks on #police & claims it is start of internal armed conflict which lasted until late 2017. Claims the AA has resorted to threats against villages & has executed suspected informers, & has been trained by Afghan militants.
[Interesting to note that ASSK did use the word #Rohingya, only when specifically referring to ARSA]. Talking about history of #Arakan (now #Rakhine) region & the colonial border drawn by British, which #Myanmar has not challenged.
Claims request was made in 1940s for #Muslim autonomous region around Maungdaw, rejected by the British, followed by violence in the 1940s.
Keeps going back to attack on #police posts by ARSA fighters (25 Aug 2017), claiming armed incidents in more than 16 (60?) locations.
Clarifying 'clearance operations', saying military uses the expression in counter-insurgency & counter-terrorist operations, after attacks by insurgents & terrorists; says it smeans 'clearing of locality' in Burmese, to clear the area of insurgency.
Claims use of air power was avoided as much as possible, except for one incident which required shooting from a helicopter. It can't be ruled out that excess force was used by armed forces or that they did not distiguish btwn fighters & civilians.
If any (#IHL violations) took place, they should be dealt with in #Myanmar criminal #law system. #Genocidal #intent cannot be the only inference. #warCrimes must be investigated in Myanmar system.
In Nov 2019, an investigation was announced, an 'independent, special investigation procedure' established for #Rahkine incidents. Apparently by late Nov, they had taken about 1500 witness statements in Nthn #Rakhine, incl from #police who were at the attacked police post.
Claiming no other fact-finding body in the world has collected evidence like this investigation (!!!). Armed forces must have accountability for their members.
Now wants to draw attention to other countries: the execution of #Muslim men in India, for which #military were sentenced but later given a pardon.
Says she is encouraged by a court-martial looking into #Rakhine situation. Says that it will not only be military who will be investigated. (Note: ASSK Continues to use #Rakhine situation & not use #Rohingya word)
#UN reports note there cannot be accountability through #Myanmar #military system. ASSK claims this is contrary to the Myanmar Constitution. Mentions complementarity of #ICL system, which only applies if domestic crim #law fails.
Says it would be unfair to ask domestic #crimLaw to move faster than #ICL (???!); calls international actors 'impatient' (yes, terrible for us all to want #genocide to stop & be punished as soon as possible!).
Continues to repeat that it is an armed conflict, which resulted in thousands fleeing to #Bangladesh, just like #warCrimes caused ethnic Croats & Serbs to flee. It is a matter for the 'competent criminal authorities' if there was #IHL & #humanRights violations, incl...
destruction of property, targeting of civilians... Should be dealt with under #IHL & #humanRights #law, but not the #Genocide Convention- which apparently Schabas will argue.
Cycles of inter-communal violence in #Rakhine going back to the 1940s should be taken into account, incl by taking into acct 'spiritual mindset of unity' (???)
Referring to planetary citizenship as necessity for peaceful world, need for practical steps to improve lives. Refers to 'complex challenges' in #Rakhine including social conflict & poverty; says #Myanmar is committed to addressing these challenges & give everyone #humanRights
Claims arrangements have been made for more #Muslim youth to attend university; that scholarships will be available to all groups in #Rakhine; a project in Maungdaw to encourage social cohesion for all communities. 3 #IDP camps already closed.
#Myanmar also committed to safe repatriation of #Muslims in #Bangladesh (I continue to point out that she does NOT USE THE WORD #Rohingya)
Asks #ICJ not to take action that will aggravate the conflict in #Rakhine, claiming Arakan Army fighters are attacking areas in Rakhine.
Claims commitment to national reconciliation, RoL & #humanRights, moving fwd to #democracy that they have aspired to for yrs past.
Schabas now up: hearing does not concern the merits, but is confined to whether #ICJ should determine PM. Will focus on requirement of plausible claim.
#Gambia seems to accept plausibility test developed in #ICJ jurisprudence but has misunderstood std. Says 1993 PMs are not important because they were prior to LaGrand Case PMs.
Refers to previous #ICJ #Genocide Convention cases. Claims interpretations of 'genocide' pre-2006 cease to be relevant, likewise the 2015 ICJ decision. Criticises Gambia for not referring to 2015 decision & instead quoting Lemkin.
Lemkin's original vision, which has much in common with #CaH, was not agreed to by the drafters of the #Genocide Convention, which has a narrower conception than Lemkin's idea. States still struggle to agree on a #CaH convention.
Says the claims do not meet the requirements of the #Genocide Convention. 2015 judgment differentiates ethnic cleansing (displacement) from #genocide (destruction).
Croatia invited #ICJ to move on as the law had. Can a challenge to sthg solidly rooted in ICJ's jurisprudence have a chance of success?
Refers to rejection of PMs in #Ukraine v #Russia, which is relevant because it referred to intent & knowledge, which #ICJ said both are required. Subjective intent is crucial to prove #genocide, & differentiates it from #warCrimes & #CaH.
Court should also take into acct gravity of alleged violations. The graver the charge the more confidence there must be in the evidence relied on. This must apply even at PM stage; must apply esp because court can't hear all evidence at this stage- should be stricter std applied
In previous #ICJ #genocide cases, ICJ had no problem in acknowledging some of the underlying acts of genocide had taken place. Much time was spent yesterday reciting what we can read in the reports.
In this point, #Gambia has had little to say on intent, other than that a pattern of conduct is enough to make a plausible claim. Theory seems to be that certain types of acts taken individually or as a whole tip the balance to conclusion they were committed w/genocidal intent.
But #ICJ test is that genocidal intent must be the only inference that could reasonably drawn from the acts in question. In #Croatia v #Serbia, for a consistent series of acts carried out to be evidence of #genocide intent, it would have to point only to genocide.
#ICJ has brought great clarity to the #law, looking at whether there is any other explanation for particular conduct. Today, in a world of persecution, apartheid, conflicts, etc, many acts may fit w/in #Genocide Convention, if certain things were established.
#ICJ has brought effective, realistic & workable approach to interpreting the #Genocide Convention. Many misunderstand the Court's approach or choose to ignore it, esp that #genocidal intent must be the only inference that can be made from the acts.
Is it plausible that genocidal intent is the only inference that can be drawn? If not, the application must fail. Applicant proposes that genocidal intent can be one plausible interpretation; accuses #Gambia of not having read the #ICJ #Genocide Convention cases.
In earliest judgments on dolus specialis, incl #Eichmann case & #ICTY #Akayesu. Discusses domestic #crimLaw of premeditated murder, & that someone won't be convicted of premeditation if there is another inference.
Believes there is ample evidence of alternative explanations, & if the Court agrees with this, then the #ICJ should state there is no chance of a case on the merits, then the case should not succeed, & therefore there should be no PMs.
In #Bosnia & #Crotia cases, #ICJ was assisted greatly by #ICTY. #ICC may assist here: it is charging with non-#genocide offences (#CaH), i.e. an alternative to genocide.
(Is one of members of the #Myanmar team at their table asleep??) Previous judgements of #ICJ have taken into acct the activities of #ICL prosecutors. Refers to #ICC #OTP mention of specific & intentional deportation of #Rohingya to #Bangladesh. (he uses 'Rohingya' but in quote)
He notes that #ICC #OTP mentions 'clearance operation' & intentional deportation. (This is a gross twisting of the ICC Prosecutor's choice of crimes, where she is trying to gain jurisdiction thru #Bangladesh, not because she doesn't think #genocide was committed!)
Now using #ICC #PTC finding confirming deportation to claim ICC is making an alternative inference to #genocide. #ICJ in #Croatia v #Serbia held that displacement (i.e. ethnic cleansing) does not in itself constitute #genocide.
(Interesting that he is focused only the deportation & completely ignoring all the other crimes being committed against the #Rohingya, like #rape, killing, destruction of property, starvation, #discrimination)
Para.5 of #Gambia's application refers to facts extensively explored by #UN, #NGOs & other sources. Para.6 turns to #genocidal #intent, referring to Special Rap #Myanmar Lee report, who said the crimes bear the hallmarks of #genocide.
Criticises Lee for being a developmental psychologist, not a #lawyer & so her statements should not be taken into acct! (um, #ASSK isn't a lawyer! & does this mean that no UN expert's opinion counts if they are not a lawyer?!).
Now refers to Dieng's statements, which use 'atrocity crimes' & only possibly #genocide; & that Dieng has not made a statement about #Myanmar or #Rakhine state (NB: no use of #Rohingya term!!!) for the last 15mths (which I agree has been VERY STRANGE).
Claims Dieng would object to being cited as an authority of #genocidal intent!
Now onto @UNHumanRights reports; & #humanRights Council, using other terminology (e.g. #CaH, or atrocity crimes).
@UNHumanRights Now onto UNFFM, which concluded that #CaH & #warCrimes had been committed, but was more circumspect on #genocide, w/sufficient evidence to warrant charges so a competent court could asses if genocide was committed.
@UNHumanRights UNFFM discussion on intent considers whether intent may have been 'to displace the #Rohingya population but not to seek its ultimate destruction', claiming this is on which the #ICC #OTP based her case. (again, only using 'Rohingya' if it's in a quote)
@UNHumanRights UNFFM says forced starvation is used to force #Rohingya to flee- this is not #genocide. (Very weak argument, as clearly forced starvation aims to kill people!!)
@UNHumanRights Latest UNFFM report makes strong insistence on #genocide, but Schabas claims there is no evidence in the report, but there is absence of allegations in significant numbers of killings ought to suggest the opposite to what the FFM concludes (wow. #genocide is more than killing!)
@UNHumanRights He claims FFM went beyond its mandate by speculating on int crimes, that its job was not to make legal findings. (How does this help his argument, if he's saying they don't argue genocide & offer an alternative option?)
@UNHumanRights Schabas saying that application is weak because numbers of deaths are lower than those displaced. Says #Myanmar will challenge the figure of 10000 dead if the case goes to court. Says that #military deaths are attributed to the ARSA.
@UNHumanRights 10000 deaths out of pop'n of 1million might suggest sthg other than intention to destroy the group (I think Schabas forgot about 'intent to destroy IN PART'!!). #Croatia v #Serbia #ICJ referred to number of victims in relation to size of group.
@UNHumanRights #ICJ found 12,500 victims alleged by #Croatia was small compared to the whole group size. Any reasonable situation will ask whether 10,000 deaths out of pop'n of over 1million raises same doubts as it did in Croatia case.
@UNHumanRights Schabas alleges it's a claim of #humanRights violations & persecution, not #genocide.
@UNHumanRights Refers to insecure conditions in camps, incl leading to deaths, but says these are not intentional deaths (NB: my own #research argues #refugee deaths are part of #genocide, as genocidaires know these will happen w/mass displacement in crowded refugee camps)
@UNHumanRights Again refers to #Croatia v #Serbia, in which acts by JNA & Serb forces were to force displacement, not destroy.
@UNHumanRights Again, repeats concept that other inferences for reasons of conduct must be excluded, thus request for PMs should be rejected.
@UNHumanRights & we're back after coffee break (or did you all get a stiff drink after Schabas??) Staker (sp?) up: will address pre-requisites for PMs incl prima facie standing.
@UNHumanRights Refers to pre-case docs incl #Gambia to #Myanmar, & @OIC_OCI resolution seeking accountability & #justice but doesn't mention #genocide, but rather gross & systematic #humanRights violations & atrocity crimes (do they realise #genocide IS an atrocity crime??!).
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI Pulling out every document that doesn't say '#genocide' but uses 'atrocity crimes' or 'humanRights violations'. (again, genocide IS an atrocity crime! See the forthcoming OUP Handbook on Atrocity Crimes edited by @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm & Maartje Weerdesteijn)
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Lots of references to tabs & paragraphs here... Picks up on reference to #ICC not #ICJ- oops!
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm I'm zoning out a bit here... so many tabs & paragraphs... What a dull walk through a bunch of sources... #intLaw
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm I feel like this could have been laid out in a written submission (oh wait, #Myanmar didn't make one!) & then summarised in oral argument...
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm So basically he's seeking to make the argument that the case is being brought by @OIC_OCI not a state.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Claims 13 @OIC_OCI states are not state parties to #Genocide Convention, while others incl #Bangladesh have made reservations to Art.9. Therefore jurisdiction is lacking.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Now looking at existence of a dispute: in absence of dispute, Art.9 #Genocide Convention doesn't apply. #Belgium v #Senegal looked at erga omnes but Court said there had to be a dispute for #CAT to apply.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Dispute must be btwn #Gambia & #Myanmar, & specificially deal w/#Genocide Convention. Claims no dispute because proceedings are brought on behalf of & funded by @OIC_OCI, & that OIC officials are in the #ICJ.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm In alternative, there is no dispute. Allegations in #Gambia's application cannot generate a dispute de novo if one did not exist at date of application. Must be shown that claim of one party is clearly disputed by the other, & that there is non-performance of #intlaw obligations.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Says @OIC_OCI documents do not show dispute btwn #Gambia & #Myanmar; & preamble to OIC docs shows no mention of #genocide. Says this is not evidence of legal dispute btwn 2 states. Myanmar not OIC member; was not put on notice of OIC resolutions.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Statements by UNFMM do not constitute statements by #Gambia; & do not put #Myanmar on notice on claims that Gambia or OIC might be intending to make in #ICj proceedings.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Statement of #Gambia's AG does not mention #Genocide Convention. So there are no allegations against #Myanmar of violations of the GC, & are insufficient to demonstrate a legal dispute.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Says #Gambia's note verbale did not call for a response, & thus Gambia cannot claim dispute exists due to #Myanmar not responding to the note verbale.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Note verbale does not provide specifics of facts, of relevant #Genocide Convention provisions, but only in general way to UNFMM reports & @OIC_OCI resolutions, the GC, customary law. No legal or factual claim that could be positively opposed by #Myanmar.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Cannot be sufficient to be dispute under Art.9 that applicant has referred respondent to report suggesting latter is in breach of #Genocide Convention & that latter has not responded. Failure to respond to note verbale therefore could not give rise to dispute.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Says @OIC_OCI has never directly accused #Myanmar of violating the #Genocide Convention, but rather made generic statements about holding states accountable for gross violations of #humanRights & #IHL.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Says @OIC_OCI wanted to bring some case but didn't really care what #law it was under, & so would have brought a case under any treaty regardless of what it was (gee, that's a stretch!)
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Inference is that note verbale was a mere formality once preparations for proceedings were already in place. #Myanmar argues lack of jurisdiction is manifest & that at PM stage it is clear proceedings should not continue. Asks to strike case from #ICJ list.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Says it would not contribute to the sound admin of #justice when it appears certain #ICJ cannot adjudicate on the merits.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Prima facie standing: #Gambia claims standing because of erga omnes character of obligations owed under #Genocide Convention. Erga omnes obligations owed to int'l community as a whole. Erga omnes partes refers to multi-lateral treaty obligations, owed only to state parties.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm #Myanmar accept some obligations under #Genocide Convention are erga omnes partes, but does not follow that #Gambia has standing to bring case before #ICJ in respect of breach by #Myanmar without being specially affected. Relevant state is #Bangladesh.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm But #Bangladesh has made reservation to Art.9 #Genocide Convention. #Laos only neighbouring state who could bring dispute under GC as other not party or have made Art.9 reservation.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm If a state could bring a case where it wasn't specially affected, seeking enforcement of erga omnes partes in #ICJ, there could be no reason why it couldn't seek enforcement through other means, e.g. counter measures.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm In other #Genocide Convention cases, the applicant was a specially affected state. Judge Odio- failure to comply with erga omnes cannot be rectified by inter-state dispute before #ICJ.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm #Belgium v #Senegal different, because it involved aut dedere, aut judicare, so not a genuine acte popularis brought by a state who was completely unaffected by the subject of the claim.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Says no decided case is standing for a pure acte popularis claim like this. When it comes to standing to bring claim before #ICJ, balance needed. Allowing pure acte popularis would open floodgates (oooh! not floodgates!).
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Allowing any state party to #Genocide Convention, no matter how far removed, to bring a case, against any other state party, could prove counter-intuitive to diplomatic actions (Well that's a weak argument given NOTHING is happening against #Myanmar otherwise!)
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm #Myanmar has made reservation Art.8 #Genocide Convention, which allows for action under #UN Charter. #ICJ can only exercise jurisdiction if it's validly seized of jurisdiction. Claims Art.8 deals w/seizing, allowing any UN organ to take action.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Art.8 reference to competent organs of #UN includes the #ICJ, which is an organ of the UN, therefore Myanmar's reservation excludes ICJ jurisdiction. Art.9 only about disputes btwn contracting parties over interpretation, etc.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Claiming Art.9 has narrower remit than Art.8; & that reservation's effect is that #ICJ cannot be seized of case even though no reservation to Art.9.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Attitude of state must be unequivocal that it accepts the jurisdiction of the #ICJ. Claiming #Myanmar has not given indisputable unequivocal acceptance of #ICJ power.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Reminder that since LaGrand, order for PM are legally binding, & non-compliance with which is a breach of #intlaw. Because of this, party must know from time of order what that party must do in order to comply.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm ...which is impossible if content of obligations can only be known after merits are decided. Reminder of Avena's PMs, which were stated w/non-prejudice to the merits, but were very specific.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Staker is thus really just supporting #Gambia's request that PMs should be very specific. But he's saying that by ordering PMs to stop committing #genocidal acts, it is a tacit decision on the merits.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm PMs may aggravate the dispute. What if the court issues PMs but later finds it lacks jurisdiction on merits? And then #Myanmar breaches PMs? In order to determine compliance w/PMs, #ICJ would need to determine merits of case- even if it has no jurisdiction to do so.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm #Myanmar is bound to comply w/#Genocide Convention anyway (ha ha ha! hilarious!), & an order from #ICJ does not increase these obligations. If ICJ orders PM, media et al will herald this as a victory over Myanmar.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Claiming that PM order would essentially be a pre-judgment on the merits.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Not role of #ICJ to create #humanRights monitoring machinery through PMs, not foreseen in #Genocide Convention.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Argues that cooperation w/#UN is not a PM that would help relationship btwn #Gambia & #Myanmar. Says this obligation would not come from the #Genocide Convention, but would create new substantive obligations vis-a-vis UN bodies, nothing to do w/Gambia.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm No principled basis for this PM request. And it would circumvent #Myanmar's reservation to Art.8, which prevents other parties calling for action under the Charter.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Akoa (sp?) up now: Case for ordering PM is not blindingly obvious. #Gambia's request fails to meet threshold for PMs & fails to satisfy requirement for urgency.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm #Gambia needs to show real & imminent risk of #genocide. Claims #Myanmar is engaged in repatriation initiatives to support displaced persons in #Bangladsh; they wouldn't do this if there was a risk of #genocide.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Claims #Myanmar is seeking resolution to issues & instability in #Rakhine; says #Gambia fails to acknlowedge role of insurgents in #Rakhine.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm (It is clear from all these arguments that all #Myanmar team have been instructed not to use the term #Rohingya. None of them use it unless it is a direct quote from elsewhere.)
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm #ICJ must be satisfied of real & imminent risk of #genocide.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm (This is fascinating. Contradictory arguments!) Staker argued that there was no action taken earlier to pre-empt the case, but Akoa argues that action was taken in March.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm Reference to MoU of repatriation, #UN engagement w/the repatriation program, #UN activities in #Rakhine state. Says it is improbable that @Refugees would facilitate meetings w/displaced persons for repatriation if there was risk of #genocide. (very naive statement!)
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm @Refugees ASEAN expressed support for enhanced ASEAN role of support for #Myanmar for repatriation (but have they done it? ASEAN notoriously staying out of anything to do w/#Rohingya #genocide issue!)
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm @Refugees (Wow, all these claims that #Myanmar is working for smooth repatriation. Incredible. Even tho Myanmar says they won't give #Rohingya citizenship.)
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm @Refugees (& claiming that #Bangladesh wouldn't support repatriation if #Genocide was a risk is also a misplaced argument, as Bangladesh is tiring of the #Rohingya #refugees, trying to push them out thru denial of communications, education & employment)
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm @Refugees (I don't know what to say about these statements about #Myanmar's alleged initiatives to improve stability, peace & development of #Rakhine. It is such false rhetoric it's almost laughable, if it wasn't so sad.)
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm @Refugees (The claims that they are building development & investment opportunities for locals in #Rakhine is a joke. We know from the UNFFM report that #Tatmadaw has its fingers in every economic pie in #Myanmar.)
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm @Refugees Now Akoa talking about 'accountability' actions, e.g. commissions of investigation (etc), all compiled to investigate 'terrorist' attacks (i.e. ARSA).
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm @Refugees Says that if the #ICJ dare to deny the alleged actions of #Myanmar govt, then they will be saying Myanmar is acting in bad faith (which we all know they are!).
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm @Refugees Now blaming Arakan Army for aggravating conflict again. Claiming restrictions on movement are by #police because of #security reasons & are applied to all groups, #Muslim or other (I have interviewed #Rohingya #refugees. This is completely false. Only Rohingya are restricted.)
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm @Refugees Refers to @YangheeLeeSKKU report & forced starvation, but saying there is no real claim of a policy of starvation. Claims that rather, food shortages affect non-Muslim groups, because of inter-ethnic fighting. (THIS IS INCREDIBLE.)
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm @Refugees @YangheeLeeSKKU (same old rhetoric) Hostilities in #Rakhine state are complex & difficult to disentangle.
@UNHumanRights @OIC_OCI @HolaBarbora @hollienbrehm @Refugees @YangheeLeeSKKU #Myanmar's actions recognised by #China (well, that's a resounding endorsement).
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