Discover and read the best of Twitter Threads about #pathogen

Most recents (24)

Thanks @DrDavidACox for interviewing me for this article on #LongCovid. There’s also great info in the article on research showing #viral RNA in the brains of patients w/ post-SARS syndrome, and viral reservoirs in patients w/ post-Ebola Syndrome: bbc.com/future/article…
2/ The article reads: “Amy Proal, a microbiologist who runs the @polybioRF which studies the causes of chronic inflammatory diseases, believes that small amounts of #pathogens that linger beyond the reach of the immune system in remote pockets of the body...
3/ “...known as reservoirs or anatomical sanctuaries, are at least partially responsible for a whole range of post-infectious syndromes. This includes long #Covid, but also a number of mysterious illnesses which have puzzled scientists for decades, such as chronic Lyme disease..
Read 14 tweets
#CHINACDC #SHANGHAICDC #IVDC #COMPANIES #SARSCoV2
This thread tends to give background historical information regarding authors of the first genomes and their own/affiliated private companies which benefit from outbreaks over ten year prior to covid-19.
#CHINACDC #CPAM Business driven mainly under the cover of this CPAM.
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#CHINACDC Business driven mainly under the cover of this CPAM.
2/3
Read 32 tweets
Happy 2021! @MBVanElzakker and I are excited to share our new article published in #Immunometabolism: “Pathogens Hijack Host Cell Metabolism: Intracellular Infection as a Driver of the Warburg Effect in Cancer and Other Chronic Inflammatory Conditions”: ij.hapres.com/htmls/IJ_1341_…
2/ In the paper, we detail molecular mechanisms by which #viral, #bacterial, and #parasite intracellular pathogens can induce, or contribute to, a Warburg-like #metabolism in infected host cells in order to meet their own replication and nutritional needs.
3/ We also discuss how host defense towards #infection may impact cellular metabolic changes (including how #mitochondria can participate in the innate immune response towards infection)
Read 9 tweets
1/ This excellent study by @aaronmring/@VirusesImmunity and team found that COVID-19 patients exhibit dramatic increases in the production of antibodies against thousands of human extracellular and secreted proteins (the exoproteome) compared to controls 👇
2/ The million dollar question is: what molecular mechanisms underly this antibody/#autoantibody production? It is worth interpreting the findings via the lens of human #microbiome/#virome activity + the activity of persistent pathogens (such as EBV) harbored by study subjects.
3/ Every study subject harbored extensive microbiome/virome communities comprised of trillions of organisms during #COVID-19 infection…with such ecosystems now understood to persist beyond just the gut but also in other body sites (#lung, liver etc).
Read 15 tweets
This is an incredibly important preprint to inform #LongCovid. Among many analyses, the team recruited 4 patients w/ prolonged + recurrent olfactory function loss after #COVID-19 (time from first COVID-19 symptoms to inclusion ranged from 110-196 days): biorxiv.org/content/10.110… Image
2/ None of these patients had detectable COVID-19 #RNA in nasopharyngeal samples by routine diagnosis (RT-qPCR). However, ALL patients had detectable COVID-19 RNA in samples obtained from their olfactory mucosa (confirmed with aRT-qPCR SYBR technique)
3/ Three of the patients had a high COVID-19 #viral load in the olfactory mucosa. Immunostaining additionally revealed the presence of COVID-19 antigens in 3 out of 4 patients. Based on that and related findings the team concluded...
Read 8 tweets
Here it is!

#Inktober2020 day 1 in my #PathogenPortraits series. After years of studying this in cow bums, it had to be #EcoliO157

It causes bloody diarrhoea & if that wasn't bad enough, sometimes kidney failure & death. More info @
nhsinform.scot/illnesses-and-…
#sciart #microbiology Inktober2020 E. coli O157 c...
#Inktober2020 day 2 in my #PathogenPortraits series. 'The Clap' (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) b/c who doesn't 💚 green purulent discharge?

It's sexually transmitted but also from mother->newborn during birth to cause blindness.
More info: microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Neis…

#sciart #microbiology Image
#Inktober2020 day 3 in my #PathogenPortraits series. The very 💛golden💛 #MRSA.

Minds it's own business on your skin, but if it gets inside, methicillin won't do a thing to stop it.

More info at mrsaactionuk.net/MRSA.html #sciart #microbiology Methicillin resistant staph...
Read 34 tweets
@adamswendya @errinbaccari @danaparish Wow thanks for sharing b/c I had not seen the study! What’s awesome is they didn’t just show that #Borrelia cld infect choroid plexus epithelial cells...they also demonstrated the substantial gene expression changes driven by the #pathogen in infected cells
@adamswendya @errinbaccari @danaparish 2/ That Borrelia downregulated genes related to cell to cell junctions (including tight and adherens junctions)...is a a direct mechanism of action finding on how the organism can cause the BBB to become more permeable
@adamswendya @errinbaccari @danaparish 3/ Can you imagine the “double hit” of already harboring Borrelia in the choroid plexus, and then getting #COVID-19 that can infect the same area? Or some version of that pattern? Each pathogen cld support the potential CNS entry of the other
Read 3 tweets
Check out this interview I did w/ @resiapretorius 👉 Resia + team have published dozens of papers detailing how inflammatory products created by #bacteria/#viruses in human blood can drive clotting, red blood cell deformability, vasculature problems etc: microbeminded.com/2020/08/06/int… Image
2/ Conditions studied by Resia and team include #Alzheimer’s + #Parkinson’s. For example they identified toxic gingipain proteins created by oral #pathogen p. gingivalis in the blood of Parkinson’s patients, and showed how the gingipains can increase hypercoagulation ImageImage
3/ I am truly excited about the fact that we are working to send her team #ME/CFS and #PTLDS (chronic #lyme disease) blood samples that they will analyze for many of the same issues 🙌
Read 3 tweets
Cool paper detailing what body sites, cell types, symptoms #COVID-19 has been connected to thus far 👉 But one thing: everyone knows that most persistent #viral (and #bacterial) pathogens are capable of #infecting/driving an equally extensive # of #symptoms, right?
2/ For example, in this interview, Dharam Ablashi (who co-discovered the #virus HHV6) explains how HHV6 has been shown capable of contributing to #cancers, type 1 #diabetes, Hashimoto’s, #MS, HPA-axis dysregulation, ME/CFS, Alzheimer’s, neuroinflammation..microbeminded.com/2020/06/28/int…
3/ ..and that the HHV6 can survive in
#microglia, astrocytes, macrophage, neurons/nerves, #pancreatic islet cells, the lung, gut epithelial cells, the #liver etc etc etc!
Read 6 tweets
Cool new study which found that a range of #pathogens (some capable of long-term persistence in tissue + #blood) upregulate expression of the cell surface protein CD47 in the host cells they infect as an #immune evasion strategy
2/ I fact, upregulation of CD47 is a very smart survival strategy by such pathogens, b/c it interferes w/ the host innate immune response that is normally supposed to identify, target and kill them!
3/ Specifically the team found that upregulation of CD47 by the pathogens under study slowed uptake of dead/#infected cells by the #immune system, including the downstream activity of #antigen presenting cells that are needed to recognize pathogens in the first place
Read 10 tweets
"The live SARS-like coronavirus SL-CoV-WIV1 has been isolated for the first time from bat droppings; and such virus has been confirmed to invade the host cells through the ACE2 of human beings..." ImageImageImage
Bat Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Like Coronavirus WIV1
Encodes an Extra Accessory Protein, ORFX, Involved in Modulation of the Host Immune Response. (2016) #ZhengLiShi #PeterDaszak #EcoHealth
Funding: #NIAID 110964 ImageImageImageImage
In this study, we have developed a fast and cost-effective method
for reverse genetics of coronaviruses by combining two approaches developed by others..As the genomes can be divided into multiple short fragments, mutations can be introduced into individual
fragments easily. ImageImageImageImage
Read 68 tweets
1/ Update: #Scientists and #clinicians must acknowledge that #SARSCoV2 has the potential to attack the human body in multiple ways simultaneously and exploit any weaknesses of its host
@JAMA_current @JAMANeuro @TheLancetNeuro
@TheLancet @NeurologyToday @AANSNeuro
@Mannanbaig11 Image
2/ A #multipronged attack could potentially explain the severity and extensive variety of the signs and symptoms in patients with #COVID19. So, is the lung a tactical feint by #SARSCoV2?

@mlipsitch @larrybrilliant @jeremyfaust
@ASlavitt @meganranney @choo_ek @tmprowell
3/ Regardless of your current specialty in #surgery or #medicine, the reality is that #SARSCoV2 and #COVIDー19 will affect us all. The sub-specialization of medicine has siloed #healthcareprofessionals, preventing us from seeing the true scope and complexity of this #pathogen.
Read 17 tweets
Hey! I have some thoughts on the paper below that attempts to position #ME/CFS as an “autoimmune disease” by associating 2 SNPs with very small odds ratios to differences b/t infectious & noninfectious disease onset (OR=0.54 & OR=0.64): frontiersin.org/articles/10.33…
2/ The team didn’t study the #ME/CFS immune response itself, but instead measured several common #SNPs associated w/ certain “autoimmune” conditions in their ME/CFS subjects. For example SNPs in the gene PTPN22 (connected to #Crohn’s, type 1 #diabetes etc)
3/ PTPN22 is a gene that, in simple terms, plays a role in regulating B and T cell activity. It’s actually just a gene that impacts the immune response (there doesn’t HAVE to be anything “autoimmune”-inducing about PTPN22 activity)
Read 10 tweets
1/ Big thanks all of you on @Twitter for the interest in my thread regarding current literature on #microthrombi and #COVID19!

It’s late, so of course, more thinking and more questions about #SARSCoV2

THREAD

@ASH_hematology @EricTopol @tmprowell @kari_jerge #medtwitter
2/ Conclusion 1: I am convinced the primary driver of #SARSCOV2 infection is in asymptomatic individuals #medtwitter #nursetwitter #epitwitter

SARS-CoV-2 titers in wastewater are higher than expected from clinically confirmed cases
medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
3/ Conclusion 2: #SARSCOV2 does not discriminate. It literally infects EVERYONE.

Newborns, kids, young adults, elderly you name it…it’s infected it. Everyone has #Ace2 receptors.

Children ARE getting it (see #China data and reports of acro-ischemia and
petechiae)
Read 20 tweets
I study the illness #ME/CFS - a neuroinflammatory condition that usually begins w/ a #viral infection (sometimes a #respiratory infection!). I have argued for years that infecting #pathogens tied to the illness might persist in the central nervous system (CNS) of such patients
2/ While I realize this article is talking about acute #infection and #COVID19 - it explains that #SARS-CoV-2 “might infect neurons, raising questions about whether there could be effects on the brain that play a role in patients’ deaths:”
the-scientist.com/news-opinion/l…
3/ Matt Anderson, (one of my favorite Beth Israel pathologists!) states, “Some of the purely respiratory symptoms that you might attribute to the #disease, the inability to get air into the #lungs, might actually be defects in #respiration controlled by the #nervous system.”
Read 8 tweets
Glad to see #ME/CFS mentioned as a disease potentially connected to immunometabolic reprogramming of host cells. But #pathogen activity in ME/CFS is severely understudied. For example, no team has yet searched for organisms in patient cerebrospinal fluid
2/ Further, numerous outbreaks of the disease have occurred that were directly linked to #enterovirus/coxsackie #viruses + autopsy studies of patients w/ ME/CFS have identified enteroviruses in patient brain tissue + stomach biospy samples: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17872383
3/ Moreover early studies on #microbiome activity in ME/CFS indicate dysbiosis of #bacterial communities in patients w/ the #disease, w/ one study noting an increase in bacterial phyla in patient blood after a symptom-provocation challenge: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26683192
Read 11 tweets
The spread of the #coronavirus highlights the need for more proactive approaches to securing the world's blood supply.

Pathogens can spread quickly through blood transfusions. Blood centers may also turn away potentially infected donors, leading to systemic blood shortages.
Despite how quickly we're learning about the virus's genetics, it takes time to develop/license a test to ensure transfusion safety.

#Pathogen inactivation (PI) is a way to actively eliminate infectious agents, even if we don't fully understand them.

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29239484
As the globe becomes more interconnected (and warms), PI might be the best way to ensure blood safety in the face of new, emerging pathogens.
Read 3 tweets
Important #autism article 👉 Pulls together literature showing oral #microbiome dysbiosis in patients w/ the disorder, and explains how activity of certain oral communities/pathogens can dysregulate both gut + brain signaling to drive cognitive symptoms: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/P… ImageImage
2/ Key are sections explaining how “oral #bacteria can find their way to the #brain through a number of pathways following routine #dental procedures”....and sections detailing how #metabolites created by oral bacteria can directly impact brain function 👇 ImageImage
3/ It’s worth noting that dominant oral #pathogen p. gingivalis - and the gingipain proteins it creates to drive inflammation - have now been identified in both #Alzheimer’s brain tissue (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/30746…) and in Parkinson’s blood (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/P…) 👇 ImageImage
Read 4 tweets
This is huge! 👉 Team identifies perivascular lymphocyte cuffs – an accumulation of immune cells surrounding blood vessels - in autopsied #autism brains☝️these cuffs were made up of killer T-cells that target damaged + infected cells: neurosciencenews.com/immune-cells-a…
2/2 Team lead says 👉 “Either the T-cells are reacting normally to a #pathogen such as a #virus, or they are reacting abnormally to normal tissue – the definition of an autoimmune disorder”☝️IMO it’s not “autoimmunity” - listen here to understand why: anchor.fm/adam-rinde/epi…
3/3 In fact, these findings strongly suggest that #autism should be studied in concert w/ other conditions like Alzheimer’s/Parkinson’s...that are increasingly being tied to pathogen activity in brain tissue 👉 Examples of such research here: microbeminded.com/2018/12/30/myf…
Read 3 tweets
Our GI tracts, lungs, urinary tract etc are lined with mucus 👉 and, by using the #pathogen P. aeruginosa as a model, this team found that exposure to specific glycans in this mucus triggered downregulation of virulence genes involved in biofilm formation: nature.com/articles/s4156… ImageImageImage
2/2 More specifically they showed that showed that “isolated #mucins act at various scales, suppressing distinct virulence pathways, promoting a planktonic lifestyle, reducing cytotoxicity to human epithelia in vitro and attenuating #infection in a porcine burn model.”
3/3 Commenting on the study, Prof K. Ribbeck at MIT says “what we have here is a therapeutic gold mine..These glycans have #biological functions that are very broad...They have the ability to regulate how #microbes behave and really tune their identity”:sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/… ImageImage
Read 3 tweets
Interesting. But the big question is: WHY do immune cells act abnormally in #Parkinson’s (PD)? 👉 It’s worth noting that PD-associated protein alpha-syn is increasingly being studied as an antimicrobial peptide that forms in response to certain pathogens: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27520… ImageImage
2/2 For example, this team also found that #bacterial endotoxin can cause alpha-syn formation, causing the team to conclude that “exposure to exogenous #pathogens” may contribute to alpha-syn’s activity in neuroinflammatory disease: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27488… ImageImage
3/3 Indeed, this study identified bacterial pathogen p.gingivalis (+ the toxic gingapains it creates) inside fibrinogen clots in PD blood 👉 indicating the #pathogen + associated LPS can drive many of the immune + cytokine changes noted in the disease: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/P… ImageImage
Read 4 tweets
Here, in 24 sick patients admitted to ICU for longer periods, #microbiome diversity tended to decrease dramatically 👉 and subjects’ gut microbiomes often became dominated by pathogenic #bacteria that cld be passed from patient to patient: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/31526… ImageImage
2/2 A key takeaway from the study is that, under conditions of imbalance/immunosuppression, #organisms already present in a patient can evolve to become a serious pathogenic threat (eg there is not necessarily a need for a “new” external #infection)
3/3 Similarly, this Stanford team studied the source of bloodstream #infections in #hospitalized + immunocompromised patients 👉 In many cases, the same strain of a particular bloodstream #pathogen was also identified in a patients’ gut microbiome: nature.com/articles/s4159… ImageImage
Read 4 tweets
This general mechanism is also key to human chronic #disease development👇A persistent pathogen evolves to create a protein similar in shape to that of its host..and now this #pathogen protein docks into host receptors to control immune/metabolic signaling to its own advantage
2/2 To better understand what I’m talking about please watch this video I recorded on the topic (I try to explain it in simple terms): Image
3/3 Here’s an example of the phenomenon from our own papers 👉 The Vitamin D Nuclear Receptor (VDR) plays a central role in controlling the innate #immune response (it expresses TLR2, cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides etc)...
Read 5 tweets
Wow! 👉 This team found that 84% of patients w/ acute ischemic #stroke had bacterial DNA in their blood clots removed from the #brain ☝️oral #pathogen viridans streptococci (already connected to #endocarditis) was the most common organism identified in the #blood clots
Here is the paper itself which states 👉 “We found DNA of viridans streptococci in most aspired thrombi of patients with acute ischemic #stroke, which suggests that oral bacteria may have a role in the cause of #cerebrovascular disease.”
Also 👉 “Repeated transient bacteremia, caused by poor dental care or bacterial #infections, may trap pathogens in atherosclerotic plaques and promote rupture of the plaques”: ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/JA…
Read 3 tweets

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