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The Strategy Bin @StrategyBin
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06/01/2019 - 78 years ago today, the longest-serving #UnitedStates #President, #Franklin D. #Roosevelt (#FDR) addressed the 77th #Congress with his "#Four #Freedoms" speech with the intent to shift #US #foreign #policy from that of #neutrality to #interventionist.
#FDR promoted the idea that the people of the world, in all nations, shared entitlement to four freedoms: that of the freedom of speech and expression, the freedom of worship, the freedom from want and the freedom from fear.
#FDR is arguably one of the most 'successful' #US Presidents. Some would argue that on the basis of his numerous social policies such as 'the New Deal'. Others, however, would argue that his role during the second world war was more prevalent to his success & everlasting legacy.
To expand on the above point, during his presidency it is known that #FDR expanded executive power, combatted the spiralling national debt and ultimately shaped the #United #States' future. It's also worth noting that during #WW2 that FDR infringed upon civil liberties with
his #Executive #Order 9066 which authorized the #Secretary of #War to prescribe Military areas. Which allowed "successful prosecution of war requires every possible protection against espionage and against sabotage to national-defense material, premises, and utilities...
as defined in Section 4, Act of April 20, 1918, 40 Stat. 533, as amended by the Act of November 30, 1940, 54 Stat. 1220, and the Act of August 21, 1941, 55 Stat. 655 (U.S.C., Title 50, Sec. 104)" - For you super nerds ;)
The executive order received scepticism and concerns were raised by the #Department of #Justice representatives at #Congressional #Committee Hearings citing #constitutional and #ethical objections. The task was instead carried out by the @USArmy. The West Coast was split...
into Military Areas. The #EO was then implemented by #Congress on March 21, 1942, by passing #PublicLaw 503. 30 days after the order was delivered. #PublicLaw 503 allowed "allowed federal courts to enforce the provisions of #EO 9066 by specifying the criminal penalties...
for violating military restrictions on civilians authorized by EO 9066. #PublicLaw 503 was not drafted by #Attorney #General Francis Biddle, instead, by Karl Bendetsen of the #WarDepartment. The law moved with unusual speed taking a mere 12 days to pass by chambers of #Congress
In Peter Irons, Justice at War, he notes that the "only hint of dissent in either body was the observation by #Ohio #Republican #Senator Robert A. Taft, who stated, "I think this is probably the 'sloppiest' criminal law I have ever read or seen anywhere."
He added, "I have no doubt that in peacetime no man could ever be convicted under it because the court would find that it was so indefinite and so uncertain that it could not be enforced under the #Constitution."
After the prementioned piece of legislation was passed the #WDC began the involuntary removal and detention #West #Coast residents of #Japanese ancestry. Up to 120,000 people were relocated to assembly areas where they were then transported to #internment #camps.
The 10 #internment #camps were located in remote states: #Arkansas, #Wyoming, #Arizona, #Colorado, #Idaho, #Utah, and #California. Out of the 120,000 or so, people interned 77,000 were #American #citizens who were unable to appeal their internment.
Those interned were denied personal liberties, the majority of whom also lost homes, businesses and so on.
The #War #Relocation #Authority stated that its purpose was to resettle the evacuees outside the #PacificCoast military area, not to detain them indefinitely. By the end of 1944, about 30,000 evacuees had been resettled, primarily in states such as:
At the very same time as the above, an estimated 33,000 #Japanese #Americans served in the #military, 800 of which were killed in action.
These servicemen served in units including the 442nd #Infantry #Regiment, the 100th #Infantry #Battalion, the 522nd #Field #Artillery #Battalion, the #Military #Intelligence #Service and the #Women's #Army #Corps.
100th #IB served with distinction in #Italy, participating in the liberation of #Rome, the battles at #Anzio and #Monte #Cassino. The Varsity Victory Volunteers (VVV), an auxiliary engineer unit maintained an exemplary military record and contributed to improved racial stability.
During the liberation of #Rome, the 100th #IB was ordered to stay at the roadside, 10 kilometers from #Rome. Ordered to stay put other units were then ordered to push on and liberate #Rome.
442nd #IR was in part created due to the actions of the VVV & 100th #IB. The 442d #Combat #Team was formed and met its first combat in #Suvereto, continuing on then to engage Hill 140, #Castelinna #Marittima, the #Vosges Mountains, #Bruyeres, #Biffontaine...
participating in the #Champagne #Campaign (guard duty), and assaulting the #Gothic Line.
To quickly glance back, the 442nd #IR near #Biffontaine were ordered to rescue the 1st Bat, 141st Regt. I'm going to skip quite abit but please do read around this. During this rescue attempt the men of #Companies I & K of 3rd #Battalion
launched an extraordinary attempt to free themselves from imminent destruction. The men of the above companies rose and charged down Hill 417 towards the German troops, screaming "Banzai!". The German forces are said to have put a desperate, but fierce defence which inevitably
failed to stop the charge. The aftermath of said charge resulted in 2nd Platoon of I Company having 2 men and the 1st Platoon was down to 20. The entire 442nd was now down to less than 800 soldiers, after being around 2,943 when attatched to the 36th Infantry.
All in all, the 442nd #Infantry #Regiment is the most decorated unit for its size and length of service in the #US military history. In total a staggering 18,143 awards were given: 9,486 Purple Hearts were awarded, 52 Distinguished Service Crosses, 1 Distinguished Service Medal,
560 Silver Stars including 28 which recieved Oak leaf clusters, 22 Legion of Merit Medals, 15 Solider Medals, 4,000 Bronze Stars including 1,200 Oak leaf clusters and...
a staggering 21 #Medals of #Honour. The recipients include Sadao Munemori (below, the only one to be awarded the medal during or immediately after the second world war), Kaoru Moto, Masato Nakae, Yukio Okutsu, Kazuo Otani, Frank H. Ono and Ted. T. Tanouye.
The 442nd RCT and 100th Infantry Battalion on the 5th October, 2010 received the #Congressional Gold Medal (also awarded to the MIS). In 2012, the 442nd RCT were made chevaliers of the #French #Legion d'Honneur.
Post war: the 442nd RCT was inactivated in '46 only to be reactivated in '47 in the #US #Army #reserve. The unit was mobilised during the #Vietnam #war in 1968. The force was mobilised during the #Iraq war from 2004 to 2006 and again in 2009 alongside the 25th Infantry Division.
Some members of the unit went on to become U.S. Representatives such as Daniel Inouye, a Representative for Hawaii, then a US Senator for Hawaii. As a Senator, he chaired the following committees: Senate Intelligence, Indian Affairs, Commerce, and Appropriations.
Daniel Inouye also served as the Caucus Secretary, and eventually the President Pro-Tempore of the US Senate (the 3rd in line to succession) until his death on the 12th December 2012. During his 58 years as an elected official, he never lost an election.
He was the last sitting #Senator to serve under #JFK, #LBJ and #Richard #Nixon. He was posthumously given the #Medal of #Freedom and has a plethora of #honours, #decorations, #awards and #citations from nations including #Israel, #Japan, the #Philippines and #France.
#Daniel #Inouye will forever be remembered as "one of the giants of the Senate" and "as one of the finest #Senators in #US history". As #Barack #Obama said, "a true #American hero". Also, an #Arleigh #Burke #destroyer has been named after him.
*to backtrack* the 522nd #Field #Artillery #Battalion, when attached to the 4th Division assisted in the liberation of the labour camp Kaufering IV Hurlach, one of 30 subordinate slave labour camps of Dachau.
"They [552nd] successfully completed every one of their 52 assignments, supporting more than seven different army divisions and units.1 They travelled 1,100 miles, racing through 40 towns in 60 days and chasing the quickly retreating...
Germans from the Saar and Rhine Rivers in the west to the Austrian border in the east."

Reference -…
*Interesting #war related stuff starts from the above down ;)*

I'll tag a few who might be interested: @war_student @thinkdefence @EngageStrategy1 @pptsapper @Barney065 @KK_Talisker_94 @ZeroFoxtrotMain @DefenceSenseUK
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